Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey S. Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan

Academic Skills

  • Christina ZafirisEmail author
  • Rachel Losoff
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-57111-9_1432


Academic skills refer to a student’s ability to perform age-appropriate school activities related to reading, writing, and mathematics. Reading skills include the five building blocks skills of phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension. These are listed in hierarchical order, as the ultimate goal is comprehending whatever one reads (National Reading Panel 2015). Writing skills begin with the basic skill of letter formation and progress to the more advanced skills of fluency (production of simple sentences), syntactic maturity (production of increasingly complex sentences), semantic maturity or vocabulary use, organization of thought or content, and conventions (including grammar, spelling, and punctuation) (Howell and Nolet 2000). Math skillsinclude the general skills of basic fact fluency (i.e., addition, subtraction, multiplication, division), math computation and operations (e.g., multi-digit addition, fractions), and math...

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References and Readings

  1. Common Core State Standards Initiative. (2016). Common core state standards for mathematics. Retrieved from http://www.corestandards.org/Math/
  2. DiPerna, J. C., Volpe, R. J., & Elliot, S. N. (2001). A model of academic enablers and elementary reading/language art achievement. School Psychology Review, 31(3), 298–312.Google Scholar
  3. Howell, K. W., & Nolet, V. (2000). Curriculum-based evaluation: Teaching and decision making (3rd ed.). Belmont: Wadsworth.Google Scholar
  4. National Reading Panel. (2015, March 17). National Reading Panel. Retrieved from https://www.nichd.nih.gov/research/supported/Pages/nrp.aspx

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Applied Psychology and Counselor EducationUniversity of Northern ColoradoGreeleyUSA
  2. 2.School PsychologyThe Chicago School of Professional PsychologyChicagoUSA