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Pineal tumors are tumors that arise from cells in and around the pineal gland. They are usually diagnosed in children, adolescents, and young adults, and are more frequent in males than females. Types of pineal tumors include germinoma (atypical teratoma), pinealoma (pineocytoma, pineoblastoma), true teratoma, and glioma. Germinomas constitute the majority of pineal tumors. Raised intracranial pressure is a common symptom and results in headache, nausea, vomiting, and in some cases, altered mental status. If the superior colliculi is involved, vertical gaze palsy with oculomotor nerve paresis may be present while ventral midbrain involvement is usually associated with downward gaze palsy. Motor symptoms such as ataxia or choreic movements can be present with cerebellar compromise. Neuroendocrine dysfunction from hypothalamic involvement can cause growth retardation or precocious puberty, especially in young boys. Surgery is usually the first line of treatment, and complete...
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