Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey S. Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan

Clock Drawing

  • David J. LibonEmail author
  • Edith Kaplan
  • Rod Swenson
  • Dana L. Penney
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-57111-9_1351


Clock drawing test (CDT) is a widely used and popular neuropsychological test. Rubin et al. (2005) reported that the CDT appears in the top 40 tests most commonly used by neuropsychologists. The CDT is often considered to be a visuoconstructional test. Modern versions of the CDT usually contain at least two parts – clock drawing to command and clock drawing to copy. In the command condition, patients are presented with a blank sheet of paper and are asked to “draw the face of a clock showing the numbers and the two hands set for ten after eleven”. In the copy condition, a pre-drawn model of a clock with numbers and hands set for 10 after 11 is presented, and the patient is asked to copy the model. Clock drawing with hands set for 10 after 11 is an innovation introduced by Edith Kaplan (1988, 1990). As described below, other versions of the CDT ask the patient to set the hands for other times. Also, some versions of the CDT include a clock subtest in which patients are...

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • David J. Libon
    • 1
    Email author
  • Edith Kaplan
    • 2
  • Rod Swenson
    • 3
  • Dana L. Penney
    • 4
  1. 1.Departments of Geriatrics, Gerontology, and PsychologyRowan University, New Jersey Institute for Successful Aging, School of Osteopathic MedicineStratfordUSA
  2. 2.Department of PsychologySuffolk UniversityBostonUSA
  3. 3.Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral ScienceUniversity of North Dakota School of MedicineFargoUSA
  4. 4.Department of NeurologyThe Lahey ClinicBurlingtonUSA