Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey S. Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan

Block Design

  • Brianne Magouirk BettcherEmail author
  • David J. Libon
  • Edith Kaplan
  • Rod Swenson
  • Dana L. Penney
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-57111-9_1347


Kohs blocks


The block design (BD) test is a subtest from the Wechsler corpus of intelligence tests that requires the examinee to use three-dimensional blocks to construct a model from a two-dimensional stimulus card. Blocks consist of sides that are all white, all red, or diagonally half red and white. Performance is timed. Although bonus points are awarded for speed, the score is either all or none, that is, a score is awarded only if the model is correctly produced within the prescribed time limit.

Historical Background

Hutt (1925) notes that the first documented use of block construction as a psychological test was by Francis N. Maxfield, working at the University of Pennsylvania Psychology Laboratory and Clinic, who devised a “color cube” test to study “imageability in children.” The procedures devised by Maxfield were also used by Clara Town (1921, cited in Hutt 1925). Both of these researchers were interested in studying analytic problem-solving strategies...

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References and Readings

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Brianne Magouirk Bettcher
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • David J. Libon
    • 3
  • Edith Kaplan
    • 4
  • Rod Swenson
    • 5
  • Dana L. Penney
    • 6
  1. 1.Department of Neurosurgery and NeurologyUniversity of Colorado School of MedicineDenverUSA
  2. 2.Rocky Mountain Alzheimer’s Disease CenterAuroraUSA
  3. 3.Departments of Geriatrics, Gerontology, and PsychologyRowan University, New Jersey Institute for Successful Aging, School of Osteopathic MedicineStratfordUSA
  4. 4.Department of PsychologySuffolk UniversityBostonUSA
  5. 5.Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral ScienceUniversity of North Dakota School of MedicineFargoUSA
  6. 6.Department of NeurologyThe Lahey ClinicBurlingtonUSA