Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey S. Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan

Action-Intentional Disorders

  • Kenneth M. HeilmanEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-57111-9_1311


Abulia; Akinesis; Hypokinesis; Motor impersistence (These terms are not fully synonymous with action-intentional disorders, but comprise important elements of the syndrome and are often used when describing specific these elements.)


In the absence of weakness, patients can have a disability with initiating (akinesia, hypokinesia, abulia) or sustaining actions (impersistence), inhibiting irrelevant actions (defective response inhibition), and stopping an action when the task has been completed (motor perseveration).

Current Concepts

The motor system allows humans to interact with their environment and alter themselves as well as others. The human corticospinal motor system together with the motor units and muscles can mediate an almost infinite number of movements, and thus the human motor system needs to be guided by at least two major types of programs: praxic and intentional. The praxic programs provide the corticospinal system with the knowledge of howto make...

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References and Readings

  1. Heilman, K. M. (2004). Intentional neglect. Frontiers in Bioscience, 9, 694–705.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Heilman, K. M., Valenstein, E., Rothi, L. J. G., & Watson, R. T. (2004). Intentional motor disorders and apraxia. In W. G. Bradley, R. B. Daroff, G. M. Fenichel, & J. Jankovic (Eds.), Neurology in clinical practice: Principles of diagnosis and management (pp. 117–130). Phila Penn: Butterworth Heineman.Google Scholar
  3. Heilman, K. M., Watson, R. T., & Valenstein, E. (2003). Neglect and related disorders. In K. M. Heilman & E. Valenstein (Eds.), Clinical neuropsychology (4th ed., pp. 296–346). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  4. Luria, A. R. (1965). Two kinds of motor perseveration in massive injury to the frontal lobes. Brain, 88, 1–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Sandson, J., & Albert, M. L. (1987). Varieties of perseveration. Neuropsychologia, 22, 715–732.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG (outside the USA) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of NeurologyUniversity of Florida College of Medicine, Center for Neurological Studies and the Research Service of the Malcom Randall Veterans Affairs Medical CenterGainesvilleUSA