Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey S. Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan

Digit Symbol Substitution Test

  • Brianne Magouirk BettcherEmail author
  • David J. Libon
  • Edith Kaplan
  • Rod Swenson
  • Dana L. Penney
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-57111-9_1289


Coding; Digit symbol subtest


The Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DS)

This is a subtest from the corpus of intelligence tests authored by David Wechsler. Since Wechsler’s publication of the Bellevue Intelligence Scale (BIS; Wechsler 1939), the basic format and concept of this test has changed very little. The test is timed. Various versions from the Wechsler corpus allow 90 or 120 s. The test requires the examinee to transcribe a unique geometric symbol with its corresponding Arabic number. The examinee is initially shown a key containing the numbers from 1 to 9. Under each number, there is a corresponding geometric symbol. The examinee is then shown a series of boxes containing numbers in the top boxes and blank boxes below them. After a short practice trial, they are then asked to copy the corresponding geometric symbol under each number. The raw score is the number of correct items completed within the prescribed time limit.

The Symbol Digit Modalities Test


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Brianne Magouirk Bettcher
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • David J. Libon
    • 3
  • Edith Kaplan
    • 4
  • Rod Swenson
    • 5
  • Dana L. Penney
    • 6
  1. 1.Departments of Neurosurgery and NeurologyUniversity of Colorado School of MedicineDenverUSA
  2. 2.Rocky Mountain Alzheimer’s Disease CenterAuroraUSA
  3. 3.Departments of Geriatrics, Gerontology, and PsychologyRowan University, New Jersey Institute for Successful Aging, School of Osteopathic MedicineStratfordUSA
  4. 4.Department of PsychologySuffolk UniversityBostonUSA
  5. 5.Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral ScienceUniversity of North Dakota School of MedicineFargoUSA
  6. 6.Department of NeurologyThe Lahey ClinicBurlingtonUSA