Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey S. Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan

T Scores

  • Grant L. IversonEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-57111-9_1254


Demographically-adjusted T score; Normative T score


T scores are commonly used for neuropsychological normative data. A T score is a special type of standard score. T scores result from a transformation of raw scores to standard scores. The formula for a standard score (i.e., a z score) is provided below.
$$ z=\frac{x-M}{\mathrm{SD}} $$
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References and Readings

  1. Brooks, B. L., Strauss, E., Sherman, E. M. S., Iverson, G. L., & Slick, D. J. (2009). Developments in neuropsychological assessment: Refining psychometric and clinical interpretive methods. Canadian Psychology, 50, 196–209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Heaton, R. K., Grant, I., & Matthews, C. G. (1991). Comprehensive norms for an extended Halstead-Reitan Battery: Demographic corrections, research findings, and clinical applications. Odessa: Psychological Assessment Resources.Google Scholar
  3. Heaton, R. K., Miller, S. W., Taylor, M. J., & Grant, I. (2004). Revised comprehensive norms for an expanded Halstead-Reitan Battery: Demographically adjusted neuropsychological norms for African American and Caucasian adults professional manual. Lutz: Psychological Assessment Resources.Google Scholar
  4. Stern, R. A., & White, T. (2003). Neuropsychological assessment battery: Administration, scoring, and interpretation manual. Lutz: Psychological Assessment Resources.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Psychiatry, British Columbia Mental Health and AddictionsUniversity of British ColumbiaVancouverCanada