Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey S. Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan

Parallel Forms

  • Glen E. GetzEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-57111-9_1229


Alternate test forms; Multiple test versions


Cognitive measures that are designed for repeated administration through the use of similar versions of the test material.

Current Knowledge

Patients often need to be evaluated on multiple occasions in order to examine change over the course of time. For example, repeated testing is important in assisting the documentation of deterioration following a diagnosis of progressive dementia or for monitoring the improvement following a closed head injury. Serial testing is not common in neuropsychological practice and have a utility in clinical, forensic, and research settings. However, practice effects of repeated testing can positively skew the results and thereby provide an inflation of patient’s performance. Parallel forms assist in the examination of cognitive improvement across time by altering the material that is presented in order to decrease practice effects without losing the gestalt of the measure that is being...

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References and Readings

  1. Beglinger, L. J., Gaydos, B., Tangphao, O., Duff, K., Karekan, D. A., Crawford, J., et al. (2005). Practice effects and use of alternate forms in serial neuropsychological testing. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 20, 517–529.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
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  3. Benedict, R. H. B., & Zgaljardic, D. (1998). Practice effects during repeated administrations of memory tests with and without alternate forms. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 20, 339–352.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. Brandt, J., & Benedict, R. H. B. (2001). Hopkins verbal learning test – Revised. Lutz: Psychological Assessment Resources.Google Scholar
  5. Fastenau, P. S., Hankins, W. T., McGinnis, C. M., Moy, T., & Richard, M. (2002). Effects of alternate forms on retest effects in clinical testing [Abstract]. Journal of International Neuropsychological Society, 7, 151.Google Scholar
  6. Heilbronner, R. L., Sweet, J. J., Attix, D. K., Krull, G. K., & Hart, R. P. (2010). Official position of the American academy of clinical neuropsychology on serial neuropsychological assessments: The utility and challenges of repeat test administrations in clinical and forensic contexts. The Clinical Neuropsychologist, 24, 1267–1278.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychiatryAllegheny General HospitalPittsburghUSA
  2. 2.Neuropsychology Specialty CareLLCPittsburghUSA