Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey S. Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan

Hold-Don’t Hold Tests

  • Glen E. GetzEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-57111-9_1201


Hold measures


Tests that in comparison to each other are thought to be either relatively resistant to aging or cognitive impairment associated with brain dysfunction or relatively sensitive to the same processes.

Current Knowledge

When interpreting performance on cognitive tests in individuals who sustain brain insult or cognitive disturbance, it is often important to consider premorbid level functioning or innate cognitive ability. One approach toward estimating premorbid intelligence is by relying on tests that measure present abilities that are thought to be resistant to change. These tests are known as “hold” subtests. The “hold” subtests from traditional intelligence measures, such as the Wechsler Intelligence Scale-IV, include vocabulary and information. The results from these measures are thought to best represent an estimate of premorbid functioning. It is thought that performance on reading tests, such as the National Adult Reading Test or the Test of...

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References and Readings

  1. Binder, L. M., Iverson, G. L., & Brooks, B. L. (2009). To err is human: “Abnormal” neuropsychological score and variability are common in healthy adults. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 24, 31–46.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Vanderploog, R. D., & Haley, J. A. (2000). Estimating premorbid level of functioning. In Clinician’s guide to neuropsychological assessment (2nd ed., pp. 39–68). Hillsdale: Erlbaum.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychiatryAllegheny General HospitalPittsburghUSA
  2. 2.Neuropsychology Specialty CareLLCPittsburghUSA