Differential diagnosis refers to the process of differentiating one diagnosis from another, and in turn, providing the most fitting diagnosis based on an individual’s presentation. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, for instance, has historically defined diagnoses from a categorical perspective, with many diagnoses having features in common with one another. This requires careful consideration of all features of an individual’s presentation and the fine details of the diagnosis itself.
In neuropsychology, the process of providing the most fitting diagnosis for a patient involves assessment of the possible causes of the patient’s current condition as well as a consideration of characteristics of the cognitive and neurobehavioral presentation. This process must take into consideration the possible organic sources of the presentation (e.g., congenital brain anomaly or event, HIV status, brain tumor, neuronal demyelination, etc.),...