Analysis of Variance
Analysis of variance (ANOVA) is a statistical test that identifies whether two or more group means are statistically different. ANOVA evaluates the null hypothesis that the means of each group are equal, and, by implication, that each group represents the same population. The alternative hypothesis is that at least one pair of group means is different, suggesting that these groups reflect different populations and that the independent variable (IV) has a significant effect on the dependent variable (DV). ANOVA uses a statistic referred to as F, which is defined as the ratio between the between-group (explained) variance and the within-group (unexplained) variance. A one-way ANOVA analyzes the difference between the means of multiple levels of one independent variable. A factorial ANOVA incorporates multiple independent variables (factors). For example, in a two-way ANOVA, the main effect of both IVs is examined. The interaction effect is also...
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