Realization of delayed intentions; Remembering to remember
Prospective memory (PM) refers to a person’s ability to remember to carry out intended actions in the future. This is in contrast to retrospective memory, the ability to recall or recognize previously learned materials. It is considered by some as an oxymoron because “prospective” and “memory” are combined to form a construct. Examples of PM include remembering to turn up for a health appointment and remembering to pay a bill.
The study of PM can be traced back to the everyday memory branch of memory research (the other branch is experimental memory). Although a number of pioneers of psychology (e.g., Freud 1901) have raised the idea of remembering to carry out intentions, PM research has been overshadowed by experimental psychologists who focused on the study of retrospective memory. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, the study of PM was sparked by interest in everyday memory problems...
References and Readings
- Brandimonte, M., Einstein, G. O., & McDaniel, M. A. (1996). Prospective memory: Theory and applications. Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
- Ellis, J. (1996). Prospective memory or the realization of delayed intentions: A conceptual framework for research. In M. Brandimonte, G. O. Einstein, & M. A. McDaniel (Eds.), Prospective memory: Theory and applications (pp. 1–22). Hillsdale: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
- Ford, R. M., Griffiths, S., Neulinger, K., Andrews, G., Shum, D. H. K., & Gray, P. H. (2016). Impaired prospective memory but intact episodic memory in intellectually average 7- to 9-year-olds born very preterm and/or very low birth weight. Child Neuropsychology, 1–26. https://doi.org/10.1080/09297049.2016.1216091.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Freud, S. (1901). The psychopathology of everyday life. New York: W. W. Norton.Google Scholar
- Kliegel, M., Jäger, T., Altgassen, M., & Shum, D. (2008). Clinical neuropsychology of prospective memory. In M. Kliegel, M. A. McDaniel, & G. O. Einstein (Eds.), Prospective memory: Cognitive, neuroscience, developmental, and applied perspectives (pp. 283–308). New York: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
- McDaniel, M. A., & Einstein, G. O. (2007). Prospective memory: An overview and synthesis of an emerging field. Los Angeles: Sage.Google Scholar
- Raskin, S. (2004). Memory for Intention Screening Test (Abstract). Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 10(Suppl. 1), 110.Google Scholar
- Thöne-Otto, A. I. T., & Walther, K. (2008). Assessment and treatment of prospective memory disorders in clinical practice. In M. Kliegel, M. A. McDaniel, & G. O. Einstein (Eds.), Prospective memory: Cognitive, neuroscience, developmental, and applied perspectives (pp. 321–345). New York: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
- Wilson, B. A., Emslie, H., Foley, J., Shiel, A., Watson, P., Hawkins, K., et al. (2005). Cambridge Prospective Memory Test (CAMPROMPT): Manual. London: Harcourt Assessment.Google Scholar