Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey S. Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan

Implicit Memory

  • Elizabeth Louise GliskyEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-57111-9_1129


Non-declarative memory


Implicit memory refers to a change in behavior or performance that occurs as a result of prior experience without conscious recollection of that prior experience. It is usually contrasted with explicit memory, which refers to conscious recollection of a specific experience from the past.

Current Knowledge

Although ideas about implicit memory date back to the seventeenth century philosophers, modern usage of the term dates to the 1980s, when it was first used to describe a phenomenon based on observations of amnesic patients. Warrington and Weiskrantz, two British neuropsychologists, had reported that although patients with severe amnesia were unable to recall recently presented words or pictures, they were able to generate that information when shown degraded or fragmented forms of the pictures or words, although such information could not be produced without prior exposure. Similarly, Milner and her colleagues reported that the densely...

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References and Readings

  1. Graf, P., & Masson, M. E. J. (1993). Implicit memory: New directions in cognition, development, and neuropsychology. Hillsdale: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  2. Schacter, D. L. (1987). Implicit memory: History and current status. Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 13, 501–518.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Schacter, D. L. (1996). Searching for memory: The brain, the mind, and the past. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of ArizonaTucsonUSA