Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey S. Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan

Verbal Mediation

  • Ashley de MarchenaEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-57111-9_1102


Inner speech; Private speech


Verbal mediation is private speech that facilitates learning and problem solving. Speech produced via verbal mediation can be either subvocal or uttered aloud; in either case, the speech is intended for the speaker, not an outside listener. Further, although verbal mediation can be accessible to conscious awareness, it is often automatic and implicit. Verbal mediation strategies increase with the development of fluent language. Although a verbal process, verbal mediation also improves performance on visuospatial and motor tasks. This process was identified early in the study of learning and memory.

Current Knowledge

Examples of Verbal Mediation

The act of labeling is a simple form of verbal mediation. For example, in an early study of verbal mediation, memory for nonsense shapes was facilitated when the shapes were given names. The grammatical structure of language also facilitates learning and memory. In a paired-associates task, where...

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References and Readings

  1. Goss, A. E. (1964). Verbal mediation. Psychological Record, 14, 363–382.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Pyles, M. K. (1932). Verbalization as a factor in learning. Child Development, 3, 108–113.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of ConnecticutStorrsUSA