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Ependymomas are tumors that arise from the ependymal cells that line the ventricular system in the brain or spinal cord. There are four main types, classified according to tumor grade: myxopapillary ependymomas and subependymomas (WHO grade I), ependymomas (WHO grade II), and anaplastic ependymomas (WHO grade III). Ependymomas are one of the most common types of tumors seen in children, especially those aged 3 years and younger. In children, ependymomas are usually located intracranially, primarily in the posterior fossa, while in adults, they are usually located spinally. Ependymomas are typically slow growing, and the main symptoms are due primarily to raised intracranial pressure. A shunt may be necessary. Depending on the location, symptoms can include nausea, headaches, vomiting, papilledema, paresthesias, ataxia, spinal pain, and changes in mood and personality. Supratentorial ependymomas are often accompanied by hemiparesis, sensory disturbances, aphasia, and other...
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