Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey S. Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan


  • Mike R. SchoenbergEmail author
  • Donald H. Saklofske
  • Yvonne Hindes
  • Robi L. Nelson
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-57111-9_1061


Emotional intelligence (EI); FSIQ; GAI; General cognitive ability; General cognitive functioning; IQ; PIQ; VIQ


The term “intelligence” has been generally operationalized as a construct reflecting individual differences in cognitive abilities underlying various skills and behaviors such as educational and occupational success. However, the definition of “intelligence” and the abilities, aptitudes, and behaviors this construct includes have been a source of debate over the course of human history.

Many definitions of intelligence have emerged over the years. For example, Binet (Binet and Simon 1905) defined intelligence in terms of judgment, practical sense, initiative, and adaptability, whereas Wechsler (1958) later defined it as “the aggregate or global capacity of the individual to act purposefully, to think rationally, and to deal effectively with his/her environment” (p. 7). Moreover, intelligence was viewed by Wechsler as a composite of different abilities that...

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References and Readings

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mike R. Schoenberg
    • 1
    Email author
  • Donald H. Saklofske
    • 3
  • Yvonne Hindes
    • 2
  • Robi L. Nelson
    • 1
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral SciencesUniversity of South Florida College of MedicineTampaUSA
  2. 2.Division of Applied Psychology, Faculty of EducationUniversity of CalgaryCalgaryCanada
  3. 3.Department of PsychologyUniversity of Western OntarioLondonCanada
  4. 4.Department of PharmacologyVirginia Commonwealth UniversityRichmondUSA