Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey S. Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan

Cortical Mapping

  • Marla J. HambergerEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-57111-9_1041


Direct stimulation mapping; Electrical stimulation mapping (ESM); Functional mapping


Cortical mapping is an invasive procedure in which electrical stimulation is applied briefly to the cortical surface for the purpose of identifying areas critical for sensory, motor, or language function. This procedure is utilized when brain surgery involves the removal or disruption of potentially functional cortical areas. Sites identified via cortical mapping are typically spared from resection, with the goal of preserving function postoperatively.

Stimulation is applied using a bipolar stimulator, usually via pairs of adjacent subdural electrodes. The procedure can be conducted intra-operatively in a conscious patient before resection of brain tissue, or extra-operatively, if subdural electrodes have been implanted, most commonly in pharmacologically resistant epilepsy patients who require intracranial EEG monitoring to delineate the region of seizure onset and spread (Fig. 1)...
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References and Readings

  1. Hamberger, M. (2007). Cortical language mapping in epilepsy: A critical review. Neuropsychology Review, 4, 477–489.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Hamberger, M. J., Williams, A. C., & Schevon, C. A. (2014). Extraopeartive neurostimulation mapping: Results from an international survey of epilepsy surgery programs. Epilepsia, 55(6), 933–939.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ojemann, G. A. (1983). Electrical stimulation and the neurobiology of language. The Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 2, 221–230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of NeurologyColumbia University Medical CenterNew YorkUSA