Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey S. Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan


  • Robert L. HeilbronnerEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-57111-9_1004


Dissimulation; Exaggerating; Feigning; Response bias


Malingering is described as the intentional production of false or grossly exaggerated physical or psychological symptoms, motivated by external incentives (APA 2000). Rewards may include money, drugs, insurance settlement, or avoidance of punishment, work, military service, jury duty, etc. Malingering is difficult to diagnose because it is not easy to gather overt evidence (e.g., patients do not admit to exaggerating or fabricating their symptoms); also, the symptoms are often emotional and mental, although certainly individuals can malinger physical symptoms. There are published diagnostic classification systems (e.g., Bianchini et al. 2005; Slick et al. 1999) that better represent current neuropsychological knowledge regarding malingering indicators than the current version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR, APA 2000). These systems are felt to offer a reliable means of...

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References and Readings

  1. American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology. (2007). AACN practice guidelines for neuropsychological assessment and consultation. The Clinical Neuropsychologist, 21, 209–231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Chicago Neuropsychology GroupChicagoUSA