Post-concussive Syndrome (PCS)
Post-concussive syndrome is a constellation of somatic, cognitive, and affective symptoms that appear shortly after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and fail to resolve (within 3 months). Psychological (McCrea 2008) and neurological (Hayes and Dixon 1994) mechanisms have been proposed to explain PCS development and maintenance. There is no consensus definition, and various diagnostic criteria have been proposed (American Psychiatric Association 1994; World Health Organization 1992). The incidence of PCS is unknown, but estimates range from 20% to 40% of persons who experience a mTBI (Donnell et al. 2012; Ponsford et al. 2012). This range of prevalence is attributed to a lack of similarity in populations that experience persistent PCS symptoms. Treatments include cognitive-behavioral therapy, which has some empirical support (Sayegh et al. 2010; Silverberg et al. 2013), psychoeducation and reassurance, and symptom-specific management (Sayegh et al. 2010)....
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