Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

Living Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan

Mild Cognitive Impairment

  • David J. LibonEmail author
  • Lisa Delano-Wood
  • Mark W. Bondi
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-56782-2_513-2


Description of Mild Cognitive Impairment

Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is described as a prodromal or transitional state whereby individuals present with reduced performance on selected neuropsychological tests and are at increased risk for the development of dementia. The initial characterization of MCI as defined by Petersen et al. (1999) included the following criteria: (1) a subjective complaint of a memory disorder (preferably corroborated by an informant), (2) intact activities of daily living, (3) preserved general cognitive abilities, (4) objective evidence of a memory deficit; and (5) the absence of dementia. In their initial research, Petersen et al. (1999) studied three groups of participants – patients classified as MCI, a normal control (NC) group, and patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The primary findings showed that...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References and Readings

  1. Alzheimer, A. (1907). Uber eine eigenartige Erkrankung der Hirnrinde (On a peculiar disease of the cerebral cortex). Zeitschrift fuer Psychiatrie, 64(1–2), 146–148.Google Scholar
  2. Apostolova, L. G., Thompson, P. M., Green, A. E., Hwang, K. S., Zoumalan, C., Jack, C. R., et al. (2010). 3D comparison of low, intermediate, and advanced hippocampal atrophy in MCI. Human Brain Mapping, 31(5), 786–797.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. Bangen, K. J., Jak, A. J., Schiehser, D. M., Delano-Wood, L., Tuminello, E., Han, S. D., et al. (2010). Complex activities of daily living vary by mild cognitive impairment subtype. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 16(4), 630–639.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. Bangen, K. J., Clark, A. L., Werhane, M., Edmonds, E. C., Nation, D. A., Evangelista, N., Libon, D. J., Bondi, M. W., & Delano-Wood, L. (2016). Cortical amyloid burden in empirically-derived MCI subtypes. Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, 52, 949–861.Google Scholar
  5. Bergeron, M. E., Thivierge, S., & Simard, M. (2010). Cognitive intervention programs for individuals with mild cognitive impairment: Systematic review of the literature. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 18(4), 281–296.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Busse, A., Hensel, A., Guhne, U., Angermeyer, M. C., & Riedel-Heller, S. G. (2006). Mild cognitive impairment: Long-term course of four clinical subtypes. Neurology, 67, 2176–2185.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Chang, Y. L., Bondi, M. W., Fennema-Notestine, C., McEvoy, L. K., Hagler, D. J., Jacobson, M. W., et al. (2010). Brain substrates of learning and retention in mild cognitive impairment diagnosis and progression to Alzheimer’s disease. Neuropsychologia, 48(5), 1237–1247.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Chao, L. L., Pa, J., Duarte, A., Schuff, N., Weiner, M. W., Kramer, J. H., et al. (2009). Patterns of cerebral hypoperfusion in amnestic and dysexecutive MCI. Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders, 23(3), 245–252.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. Crook, T. H., & Larrabee, G. J. (1988). Interrelationships among everyday memory tests: Stability of factor structure with age. Neuropsychology, 2, 1–12.Google Scholar
  10. Crook, T., Bahar, H., & Sudilovsky, A. (1987). Age-associated memory impairment: Diagnostic criteria and treatment strategies. International Journal of Neurology, 21–22, 73–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. DeCarli, C., Frisoni, G. B., Clark, C. M., Harvey, D., Grundman, M., Petersen, R. C., et al. (2007). Qualitative estimates of medial temporal atrophy as a predictor of progression from mild cognitive impairment to dementia. Archives of Neurology, 64(1), 108–115.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Delano-Wood, L., Bondi, M. W., Sacco, J., Abeles, N., Jak, A. J., Libon, D. J., et al. (2009). Heterogeneity in mild cognitive impairment: Differences in neuropsychological profile and associated white matter lesion pathology. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 15(6), 906–914.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. Dubois, B., Feldman, H. H., Jacova, C., DeKosky, S. T., Barberger-Gateau, P., Cummings, J., et al. (2007). Research criteria for the diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease: Revising the NINCDS-ADRDA criteria. Lancet Neurology, 6, 734–746.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Edmonds, E. C., Delano-Wood, L., Clark, L. R., Jak, A. J., Nation, D. A., McDonald, C. R., Libon, D. J., Au, R., Salmon, D. P., Bondi, M. W., & for the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative. (2015). Susceptibility of the conventional criteria for mild cognitive impairment to false positive diagnostic errors: Evidence from the Alzheimer’s disease neuroimaging initiative. Alzheimer’s & Dementia, 11, 415–424.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Eppig, J., Wambach, D. M., Nieves, C., Price, C. C., Lamar, M., Delano-Wood, L., Giovannetti, T., Bettcher, B. M., Penney, D. L., Swenson, R., Lippa, C., Kabasakalian, A., Bondi, M. W., & Libon, D. J. (2012). Dysexecutive functioning in mild cognitive impairment: Derailment in temporal gradients. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 18, 20–28.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Fagan, A. M., Roe, C. M., Xiong, C., Mintun, M. A., Morris, J. C., & Holtzman, D. M. (2007). Cerebrospinal fluid tau/beta-amyloid42 ratio as a prediction of cognitive decline in nondemented older adults. Archives of Neurology, 64(3), 343–349.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Farlow, M. R. (2009). Treatment of mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Current Alzheimer Research, 6(4), 362–367.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Fischer, P., Jungwirth, S., Zehetmayer, S., Weissgram, S., Hoenigschnabl, S., Gelpi, E., et al. (2007). Conversion from subtypes of mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer dementia. Neurology, 68, 288–291.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Folstein, M. F., Folstein, S. E., & McHugh, P. R. (1975). Mini-mental state: A practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 12, 189–198.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Frisoni, G. B., & Soininen, H. (2008). MRI of hippocampus and entorhinal cortex in mild cognitive impairment: A follow-up study. Neurobiology of Aging, 29, 31–38.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Graff-Radford, N. R., Crook, J. E., Lucas, J., Boeve, B. F., Knopman, D. S., Ivnik, R. J., et al. (2007). Association of low plasma Aβ42/A β40 ratios with increased imminent risk for mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer disease. Archives of Neurology, 64, 354–362.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Griffith, H. R., Netson, K. L., Harrell, L. E., Zamrini, E. Y., Brockington, J. C., & Marson, D. C. (2006). Amnestic mild cognitive impairment: Diagnostic outcomes and clinical prediction over a two-year time period. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 12(2), 166–175.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Hughes, C. P., Berg, L., Danziger, W. L., Coben, L. A., & Martin, R. L. (1982). A new clinical scale for the staging of dementia. British Journal of Psychiatry, 240, 565–572.Google Scholar
  24. Jack, C. R., Petersen, R. C., Cheng Xu, Y., O’Brien, P. C., Smith, G. E., Ivnik, R. J., et al. (1999). Prediction of AD with MRI-based hippocampal volume in mild cognitive impairment. Neurology, 52(7), 1397–1403.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. Jak, A. J., Bondi, M. W., Delano-Wood, L., Wierenga, C., Corey-Bloom, J., Salmon, D. P., et al. (2009). Quantification of five neuropsychological approaches to defining mild cognitive impairment. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 17(5), 368–375.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. Jicha, G. A., Parisi, J. E., Dickson, D. W., Johnson, K., Cha, R., Ivnik, R. J., et al. (2006). Neuropathologic outcome of mild cognitive impairment following progression to clinical dementia. Archives of Neurology, 63(5), 674–681.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Kivipelto, M., Helkala, E. L., Hanninen, T., Laakso, M. P., Hallikainen, M., Alhainen, K., et al. (2001). Midlife vascular risk factors and late-life mild cognitive impairment: A population-based study. Neurology, 56(12), 1683–1689.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Knopman, D. S., DeKosky, S. T., Cummings, J. L., Chui, H., Corey-Bloom, J., Relkin, N., et al. (2001). Practice parameter: Diagnosis of dementia (an evidence-based review): Report on the quality standards subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. Neurology, 56, 1143–1153.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Kral, V. A. (1962). Senescent forgetfulness: Benign and malignant. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 86, 256–260.Google Scholar
  30. Libon, D. J., Xie, S. X., Moore, P., Farmer, J., Antani, S., McCawley, G., et al. (2007). Patterns of neuropsychological impairment in frontotemporal dementia. Neurology, 68(5), 369–375.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Libon, D. J., Xie, S. X., Eppig, J., Wicas, G., Lamar, M., Lippa, C., et al. (2010). The heterogeneity of mild cognitive impairment: A neuropsychological analysis. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 16(1), 84–93.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Libon, D. J., Bondi, M. W., Price, C. C., Lamar, M., Eppig, J., Wambach, D. M., Nieves, C., Delano Wood, L., Giovannetti, T., Lippa, C., Kabasakalian, A., Cosentino, S., Swenson, R., & Penney, D. L. (2011). Verbal serial list learning in mild cognitive impairment: A profile analysis of interference, forgetting, and errors. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 17, 905–914.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. Libon, D. J., Drabick, D. A. G., Giovannetti, T., Price, C. C., Bondi, M. W., Eppig, J., Nieves, C., Lamar, M., Delano-Wood, L., Nation, D. A., Brennan, L., Au, R., & Swenson, R. (2014). Neuropsychological syndromes associated with Alzheimer’s/vascular spectrum dementia: A latent class analysis. Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, 42, 999–1014.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Loewenstein, D. A., Acevedo, A., Potter, E., Schinka, J. A., Raj, A., Greig, M. T., et al. (2009). Severity of medial temporal atrophy and amnestic mild cognitive impairment: Selecting type and number of memory tests. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 17(12), 1050–1058.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Lopez, O. L., Jagust, W. J., DeKosky, S. T., Becker, J. T., Fitzpatrick, A., Dulberg, C., et al. (2003). Prevalence and classification of mild cognitive impairment in the cardiovascular health study cognition study: Part 1. Archives of Neurology, 60, 1385–1389.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Morris, J. C., Storandt, M., Miller, J. P., McKeel, D. W., Price, J. L., Rubin, E. H., et al. (2001). Mild cognitive impairment represents early-stage Alzheimer disease. Archives of Neurology, 58(3), 397–405.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Nordlund, A., Rolstad, S., Klang, O., Lind, K., Pedersen, M., Blennow, K., et al. (2008). Episodic memory and speed/attention deficits are associated with Alzheimer-typical CSF abnormalities in MCI. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 14(4), 582–590.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Pa, J., Boxer, A., Chao, L. L., Gazzaley, A., Freeman, K., Kramer, J., et al. (2009). Clinical-neuroimaging characteristics of dysexecutive mild cognitive impairment. Annals of Neurology, 65, 414–423.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  39. Petersen, R. C. (2004). Mild cognitive impairment as a diagnostic entity. Journal of Internal Medicine, 256, 183–194.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Petersen, R. C., & Morris, J. D. (2005). Mild cognitive impairment as a clinical entity and treatment target. Archives of Neurology, 62, 1160–1163.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Petersen, R. C., Smith, G. E., Waring, S. C., Ivnik, R. J., Tangalos, E. G., & Kokmen, E. (1999). Mild cognitive impairment: Clinical characterization and outcome. Archives of Neurology, 56, 303–308.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Petersen, R. C., Doody, R., Kurz, A., Mohs, R. C., Morris, J. C., Rabins, P. V., et al. (2001). Current concepts in mild cognitive impairment. Archives of Neurology, 58, 1985–1992.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Petersen, R. C., Thomas, R. G., Grundman, M., Bennett, D., Doody, R., Ferris, S., et al. (2005). Vitamin E and donepezil for the treatment of mild cognitive impairment. New England Journal of Medicine, 352(23), 2379–2388.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Petersen, R. C., Roberts, R. O., Knopman, D. S., Boeve, B. F., Geda, Y. E., Ivnik, R. J., et al. (2009). Mild cognitive impairment: Ten years later. Archives of Neurology, 66(12), 1447–1455.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  45. Ravaglia, G., Forti, P., Maioli, F., Martelli, M., Servadei, L., Brunetti, N., et al. (2006). Conversion of mild cognitive impairment to dementia: Predictive role of mild cognitive impairment subtypes and vascular risk factors. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, 21, 51–58.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Reisberg, B., Ferris, S. H., de Leon, M. J., & Crook, T. (1982). The Global Deterioration Scale for assessment of primary degenerative dementia. American Journal of Psychiatry, 139, 1136–1139.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Riesberg, B., Ferris, S. H., Kluger, A., Franssen, E., Wegiel, J., & de Leon, M. J. (2008). Mild cognitive impairment (MCI): A historical perspective. International Psychogeriatrics, 20(1), 18–31.Google Scholar
  48. Saxton, J., Snitz, B. E., Lopez, O. L., Ives, D. G., Dunn, L. O., Fitzpatrick, A., et al. (2009). Functional and cognitive criteria produce different rates of mild cognitive impairment and conversion to dementia. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, 80(7), 737–743.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  49. Simonsen, A. H., McGuire, J., Hansson, O., Zetterberg, H., Podust, V. N., Davies, H. A., et al. (2007). Novel panel of cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers for the prediction of progression to Alzheimer dementia in patients with mild cognitive impairment. Archives of Neurology, 64(3), 366–370.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Solfrizzi, V., Panza, F., Colacicco, A. M., D’Introno, A., Capurso, C., Torres, F., et al. (2004). Vascular risk factors, incidence of MCI, and rates of progression to dementia. Neurology, 63(10), 1882–1891.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Storandt, M., Grant, E. A., Miller, J. P., & Morris, J. C. (2006). Longitudinal course and neuropathologic outcomes in original vs revised MCI and in pre-MCI. Neurology, 67(3), 467–473.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Tapiola, T., Pennanen, C., Tapiola, M., Tervo, S., Kivipelto, M., Hänninen, T., et al. (2008). MRI of hippocampus and entorhinal cortex in mild cognitive impairment: A follow-up study. Neurobiology of Aging, 29(1), 31–38.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Tschanz, J. R., Welsh-Bohmer, K. A., Lyketsos, C. G., Corcoran, C., Green, R. C., Hayden, K., et al. (2006). Conversion to dementia from mild cognitive disorder: The Cache County Study. Neurology, 67(2), 229–234.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Twamley, E. W., Ropacki, S. A., & Bondi, M. W. (2006). Neuropsychological and neuroimaging changes in preclinical Alzheimer’s disease. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 12(5), 707–735.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  55. Winblad, B., Palmer, K., Kivipelto, M., Jelic, V., Fratiglioni, L., Wahlund, L.-O., et al. (2004). Mild cognitive impairment – Beyond controversies, towards a consensus: Report of the International Working Group on Mild Cognitive Impairment. Journal of Internal Medicine, 256, 240–246.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Yaffe, K., Petersen, R. C., Lindquist, K., Kramer, J., & Miller, B. (2006). Subtype of mild cognitive impairment and progression to dementia and death. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, 22, 312–319.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • David J. Libon
    • 1
    Email author
  • Lisa Delano-Wood
    • 2
    • 3
  • Mark W. Bondi
    • 4
    • 5
  1. 1.Departments of Geriatrics, Gerontology, and PsychologySchool of Osteopathic Medicine, New Jersey Institute for Successful Aging, Rowan UniversityStratfordUSA
  2. 2.Memory, Aging & Resilience Clinic (MARC), Department of PsychiatryUniversity of California, San DiegoLa JollaUSA
  3. 3.VA San Diego Healthcare SystemSan DiegoUSA
  4. 4.University of California San Diego School of MedicineLa JollaUSA
  5. 5.Neuropsychological Assessment UnitVA San Diego Healthcare SystemSan DiegoUSA