Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

Living Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan

Echocardiogram

Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-56782-2_2176-2

Synonyms

Definition

An echocardiogram is a medical test that uses ultrasound or sound waves to create a moving “real time” image to examine the heart. It involves no radiation and no injection of foreign substances into the body and therefore has little or no risk. It can be performed in a physician’s office or in the hospital. A sonographer places lubricant on the surface of the skin over the heart and rubs a device that sends sounds waves over the area, which are then bounced to varying degrees off of the heart tissue, and the amount, timing, pattern, and method of return of those sound waves back to the sensor reflect the structure, quality, and movement of the heart muscle and accompanying tissues. This allows “visualization” of the heart’s chambers, walls, valves, and the major blood vessels that exit from the heart. These images can be studied as they are happening, and they can be captured and recorded for a permanent record.

Current Knowledge

Measures are...

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References

  1. Caballero, L., Kou, S., Dulgheru, R., Gonjilashvili, N., et al. (2015). Echocardiographic reference ranges for normal cardiac Doppler data: Results from the NORRE study. European Heart Journal. Cardiovascular Imaging, 16(9), 1031–1041.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Flachskampf, F. A., Wouters, P. F., Edvardsen, T., Evangelista, A., et al. (2014). Recommendations for transoesophageal echocardiography. European Heart Journal. Cardiovascular Imaging, 15, 353–365.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Hung, J., Lang, R., Flachskampf, F., Shernan, S. K., McCulloch, M. L., Adams, D. B., Thomas, J., Vannan, M., & Ryan, T. (2007). 3D echocardiography: A review of the current status and future directions. Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography, 20, 213–233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Feinberg School of Medicine, Physical Medicine and RehabilitationNorthwestern UniversityChicagoUSA