Advertisement

Neuropsychopharmacotherapy: Guidelines

  • Jelena VrublevskaEmail author
  • Lubova Renemane
Living reference work entry
  • 52 Downloads

Abstract

Practicing evidence-based medicine (EBM) requires the ability to evaluate relevant evidence for the purpose of making an evidence-based treatment decision. The need to standardize different therapeutic approaches has encouraged the development of guidelines to advice on the treatment, management, and assessment of psychiatric conditions. Treatment guidelines serve the purpose of gathering and evaluating research data and transform them into comprehensive treatment algorithm. Based on the current status of evidence, algorithms have been combined to form a unified guideline for management. Clinical practice guidelines form the basis of standard clinical practice for all disciplines of medicine, including psychiatry. However, a significant challenge for psychiatry is the incorporation of this new knowledge into the daily work of clinicians. Moreover, there are several potential risks related with use of algorithms and guidelines. The evidence might be insufficient and the consensus panels might express biased opinions. They are often not read or followed because of poor quality or because of barriers to implementation due to either lack of agreement or ambiguity. We briefly review practice guidelines for the treatment of schizophrenia, major depression, and bipolar disorder.

References

  1. American Psychiatric Association (APA). Practice guideline for the treatment of patients with major depressive disorder. 3rd ed. Washington, DC: APA; 2010.Google Scholar
  2. Amsterdam JD, Fava M, Maislin G, Rosenbaum J, Hornig-Rohan M. TRH stimulation test as a predictor of acute and long-term antidepressant response in major depression. J Affect Disord. 1996;38(2–3):165–72.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. APA. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 4th ed. Washington: American Psychiatric Association; 1994.Google Scholar
  4. APA. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 5th ed. Arlington: American Psychiatric Association; 2013.Google Scholar
  5. APA. American Psychiatric Association Practice Guidelines. https://psychiatryonline.org/guidelines
  6. Barnes TR. Evidence-based guidelines for the pharmacological treatment of schizophrenia: recommendations from the British Association for Psychopharmacology. J Psychopharmacol (Oxford, England). 2011;25(5):567–620.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bauer M, Pfennig A, Severus E, Whybrow PC, Angst J, Moller HJ. World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP) guidelines for biological treatment of unipolar depressive disorders, part 1: update 2013 on the acute and continuation treatment of unipolar depressive disorders. World J Biol Psychiatry. 2013;14(5):334–85.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. Bauer M, Severus E, Kohler S, Whybrow PC, Angst J, Moller HJ. World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP) guidelines for biological treatment of unipolar depressive disorders. Part 2: maintenance treatment of major depressive disorder-update 2015. World J Biol Psychiatry. 2015;16(2):76–95.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. Brouwers MC, Kho ME, Browman GP, Burgers JS, Cluzeau F, Feder G, et al. AGREE II: advancing guideline development, reporting and evaluation in health care. CMAJ. 2010;182(18):E839–42.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Carnett WG. Clinical practice guidelines: a tool to improve care. Qual Manag Health Care. 1999;8(1):13–21.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. CINP. The International College of Neuropsychopharmacology. Guidelines. https://cinp.org/Guidelines. Accessed April 2020.
  12. Cleare A, Pariante CM, Young AH, Anderson IM, Christmas D, Cowen PJ, et al. Evidence-based guidelines for treating depressive disorders with antidepressants: a revision of the 2008 British Association for Psychopharmacology guidelines. J Psychopharmacol (Oxford, England). 2015;29(5):459–525.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Coleman K, Norris S, Weston A, Grimmer-Somers K, Hilier S, Merlin T, et al. NHMRC additional levels of evidence and grades for recommendations for developers of guidelines. Evidence Translation Section, and supported by National Institute of Clinical Studies Officers of the NHMRC. Australia; 2009. https://www.mja.com.au/sites/default/files/NHMRC.levels.of.evidence.2008-09.pdf. Accesed April 2020.
  14. Driessen E, Van HL, Don FJ, Peen J, Kool S, Westra D, et al. The efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy and psychodynamic therapy in the outpatient treatment of major depression: a randomized clinical trial. Am J Psychiatry. 2013;170(9):1041–50.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. Driessen E, Hollon SD, Bockting CLH, Cuijpers P, Turner EH. Does publication bias inflate the apparent efficacy of psychological treatment for major depressive disorder? A systematic review and meta-analysis of US National Institutes of Health-Funded Trials. Plos One. 2015;10(9):e0137864.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Field MJ, Lohr KN. Clinical practice guidelines: directions for a new program. Washington, DC: National Academies Press 1990.Google Scholar
  17. Field MJ, Lohr KN, Institute of Medicine. Guidelines for clinical practice : from development to use. Washington, DC: National Academies Press; 1992.Google Scholar
  18. Forsner T, Hansson J, Brommels M, Wistedt AA, Forsell Y. Implementing clinical guidelines in psychiatry: a qualitative study of perceived facilitators and barriers. BMC Psychiatry. 2010;10:8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Fountoulakis KN. Treatment guidelines bipolar disorder: an evidence based guide to manic depression. 2015.Google Scholar
  20. Fountoulakis KN, Grunze H, Vieta E, Young A, Yatham L, Blier P, et al. The International College of Neuro-Psychopharmacology (CINP) treatment guidelines for bipolar disorder in adults (CINP-BD-2017), part 3: the clinical guidelines. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2016a;20(2):180–95.PubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. Fountoulakis KN, Yatham L, Grunze H, Vieta E, Young A, Blier P, et al. The International College of Neuro-Psychopharmacology (CINP) treatment guidelines for bipolar disorder in adults (CINP-BD-2017), part 2: review, grading of the evidence, and a precise algorithm. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2016b;20(2):121–79.PubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. Fountoulakis KN, Young A, Yatham L, Grunze H, Vieta E, Blier P, et al. The International College of Neuropsychopharmacology (CINP) treatment guidelines for bipolar disorder in adults (CINP-BD-2017), part 1: background and methods of the development of guidelines. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2016c;20(2):98–120.PubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. Fountoulakis KN, Vieta E, Young A, Yatham L, Grunze H, Blier P, et al. The International College of Neuropsychopharmacology (CINP) treatment guidelines for bipolar disorder in adults (CINP-BD-2017), part 4: unmet needs in the treatment of bipolar disorder and recommendations for future research. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2017;20(2):196–205.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. Galletly C, Castle D, Dark F, Humberstone V, Jablensky A, Killackey E, et al. Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists clinical practice guidelines for the management of schizophrenia and related disorders. Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 2016;50(5):410–72.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. Garnick DW, Hendricks AM, Brennan TA. Can practice guidelines reduce the number and costs of malpractice claims? JAMA. 1991;266(20):2856–60.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. Goodwin GM. Evidence-based guidelines for treating bipolar disorder: revised second edition – recommendations from the British Association for Psychopharmacology. J Psychopharmacol (Oxford, England). 2009;23(4):346–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Goodwin GM, Young AH. The British Association for Psychopharmacology guidelines for treatment of bipolar disorder: a summary. J Psychopharmacol (Oxford, England). 2003;17(4 Suppl):3–6.Google Scholar
  28. Goodwin GM, Haddad PM, Ferrier IN, Aronson JK, Barnes T, Cipriani A, et al. Evidence-based guidelines for treating bipolar disorder: Revised third edition recommendations from the British Association for Psychopharmacology. J Psychopharmacol (Oxford, England). 2016;30(6):495–553.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Grunze H, Kasper S, Goodwin G, Bowden C, Baldwin D, Licht R, et al. World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP) guidelines for biological treatment of bipolar disorders. Part I: treatment of bipolar depression. World J Biol Psychiatry. 2002;3(3):115–24.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  30. Grunze H, Kasper S, Goodwin G, Bowden C, Baldwin D, Licht RW, et al. The World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP) guidelines for the biological treatment of bipolar disorders, part II: treatment of mania. World J Biol Psychiatry. 2003;4(1):5–13.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  31. Grunze H, Kasper S, Goodwin G, Bowden C, Moller HJ. The World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP) guidelines for the biological treatment of bipolar disorders, part III: maintenance treatment. World J Biol Psychiatry. 2004;5(3):120–35.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  32. Grunze H, Vieta E, Goodwin GM, Bowden C, Licht RW, Moller HJ, et al. The World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP) guidelines for the biological treatment of bipolar disorders: update 2009 on the treatment of acute mania. World J Biol Psychiatry. 2009;10(2):85–116.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. Grunze H, Vieta E, Goodwin GM, Bowden C, Licht RW, Moller HJ, et al. The World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP) guidelines for the biological treatment of bipolar disorders: update 2010 on the treatment of acute bipolar depression. World J Biol Psychiatry. 2010;11(2):81–109.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  34. Grunze H, Vieta E, Goodwin GM, Bowden C, Licht RW, Moller HJ, et al. The World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP) guidelines for the biological treatment of bipolar disorders: update 2012 on the long-term treatment of bipolar disorder. World J Biol Psychiatry. 2013;14(3):154–219.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  35. Grunze H, Vieta E, Goodwin GM, Bowden C, Licht RW, Azorin JM, et al. The World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP) guidelines for the biological treatment of bipolar disorders: acute and long-term treatment of mixed states in bipolar disorder. World J Biol Psychiatry. 2018;19(1):2–58.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  36. Hanlon P. The future public health. Maidenhead: McGraw-Hill Education; 2012.Google Scholar
  37. Hasan A, Falkai P, Wobrock T, Lieberman J, Glenthoj B, Gattaz WF, et al. World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP) guidelines for biological treatment of schizophrenia, part 1: update 2012 on the acute treatment of schizophrenia and the management of treatment resistance. World J Biol Psychiatry. 2012;13(5):318–78.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  38. Hasan A, Falkai P, Wobrock T, Lieberman J, Glenthoj B, Gattaz WF, et al. World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP) guidelines for biological treatment of schizophrenia, part 2: update 2012 on the long-term treatment of schizophrenia and management of antipsychotic-induced side effects. World J Biol Psychiatry. 2013;14(1):2–44.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  39. Hasan A, Falkai P, Wobrock T, Lieberman J, Glenthøj B, Gattaz WF, et al. World Federation of Societies of biological psychiatry (WFSBP) guidelines for biological treatment of schizophrenia. Part 3: update 2015 management of special circumstances: depression, suicidality, substance use disorders and pregnancy and lactation. World J Biol Psychiatry. 2015;16(3):142–70.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  40. Hasan A, Bandelow B, Yatham LN, Berk M, Falkai P, Möller H-J, et al. WFSBP guidelines on how to grade treatment evidence for clinical guideline development. World J Biol Psychiatry. 2019;20(1):2–16.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  41. Kamens SR, Cosgrove L, Peters SM, Jones N, Flanagan E, Longden E, et al. Standards and guidelines for the development of diagnostic nomenclatures and alternatives in mental health research and practice. J Humanist Psychol. 2019;59(3):401–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Kennedy SH, Lam RW, McIntyre RS, Tourjman SV, Bhat V, Blier P, et al. Canadian Network for Mood and Anxiety Treatments (CANMAT) 2016 clinical guidelines for the management of adults with major depressive disorder: section 3. Pharmacological treatments. Can J Psychiatry. 2016;61(9):540–60.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Kredo T, Bernhardsson S, Machingaidze S, Young T, Louw Q, Ochodo E, et al. Guide to clinical practice guidelines: the current state of play. Int J Qual Health Care. 2016;28(1):122–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Kusumakar V, Yatham LN, Haslam DR, Parikh SV, Matte R, Silverstone PH, et al. Treatment of mania, mixed state, and rapid cycling. Can J Psychiatr Rev can psychiatr. 1997;42(Suppl 2):79s–86s.Google Scholar
  45. Lam RW, McIntosh D, Wang J, Enns MW, Kolivakis T, Michalak EE, et al. Canadian Network for Mood and Anxiety Treatments (CANMAT) 2016 clinical guidelines for the management of adults with major depressive disorder: section 1. Disease burden and principles of care. Can J Psychiatry. 2016;61(9):510–23.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Lehman AF, Lieberman JA, Dixon LB, McGlashan TH, Miller AL, Perkins DO, et al. Practice guideline for the treatment of patients with schizophrenia, second edition. Am J Psychiatry. 2004;161(2 Suppl):1–56.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  47. Leucht S, Arango C, Fleischhacker WW, Kapur S, Stroup S, van Os J, et al. CINP SCHIZOPHRENIA GUIDELINE. 2013. The International College of Neuropsychopharmacology (CINP) https://www.cinp.org/resources/Documents/CINP-schizophrenia-guideline-24.5.2013-A-C-method.pdf. Accessed April 2020.
  48. MacQueen GM, Frey BN, Ismail Z, Jaworska N, Steiner M, Lieshout RJ, et al. Canadian Network for Mood and Anxiety Treatments (CANMAT) 2016 clinical guidelines for the management of adults with major depressive disorder: section 6. Special populations: youth, women, and the elderly. Can J Psychiatry. 2016;61(9):588–603.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Malhi GS, Bassett D, Boyce P, Bryant R, Fitzgerald PB, Fritz K, et al. Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists clinical practice guidelines for mood disorders. Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 2015;49(12):1087–206.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  50. McGorry P, Killackey E, Lambert T. Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists clinical practice guidelines for the treatment of schizophrenia and related disorders. Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 2005;39:1–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. McIntyre JS. Usefulness and limitations of treatment guidelines in psychiatry. World Psychiatry. 2002;1(3):186–9.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  52. Milev RV, Giacobbe P, Kennedy SH, Blumberger DM, Daskalakis ZJ, Downar J, et al. Canadian Network for Mood and Anxiety Treatments (CANMAT) 2016 clinical guidelines for the management of adults with major depressive disorder: section 4. Neurostimulation treatments. Can J Psychiatry. 2016;61(9):561–75.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Mulrow CD. Rationale for systematic reviews. BMJ. 1994;309(6954):597–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Munder T, Brütsch O, Leonhart R, Gerger H, Barth J. Researcher allegiance in psychotherapy outcome research: an overview of reviews. Clin Psychol Rev. 2013;33(4):501–11.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  55. NICE. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Depression in adults: recognition and management (Clinical guideline 90). www.nice.org.uk/guidance/cg90. 2009.
  56. NICE. Bipolar disorder: assessment and management clinical guideline. www.nice.org.uk/guidance/cg185. 2014
  57. Nivoli G, Lorettu L, Carpiniello B, Milia P, Pinna F, Lepretti A, et al. [Charges and convictions of psychiatrists for the violent behavior of the patient: psychiatric-forensic remarks]. Riv Psichiatr. 2017;52(3):101–8.Google Scholar
  58. Parikh SV, Quilty LC, Ravitz P, Rosenbluth M, Pavlova B, Grigoriadis S, et al. Canadian Network for Mood and Anxiety Treatments (CANMAT) 2016 clinical guidelines for the management of adults with major depressive disorder: section 2. Psychological treatments. Can J Psychiatry. 2016;61(9):524–39.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Ravindran AV, Balneaves LG, Faulkner G, Ortiz A, McIntosh D, Morehouse RL, et al. Canadian Network for Mood and Anxiety Treatments (CANMAT) 2016 clinical guidelines for the management of adults with major depressive disorder: section 5. Complementary and alternative medicine treatments. Can J Psychiatry. 2016;61(9):576–87.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Remington G, Addington D, Honer W, Ismail Z, Raedler T, Teehan M. Guidelines for the pharmacotherapy of schizophrenia in adults. Can J Psychiatry. 2017;62(9):604–16.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Stasevic M, Karlicic IS, Divac N, Grgurevic A, Grbic I. Factors associated with adherence to guidelines of good clinical practice during hospital treatment of patients with the first episode of schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Vojnosanit Pregl. 2019;76(10):998–1006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Taylor DM, Barnes TRE, Young AH. The Maudsley prescribing guidelines in psychiatry. 13th ed. India: Wiley-Blackwell; 2018.Google Scholar
  63. The ADAPTE process: resource toolkit for guideline adaptation. Version 2.0. http://www.g-i-n.net [Internet]. 2009.
  64. Woolf SH. Practice guidelines, a new reality in medicine. II. Methods of developing guidelines. Arch Intern Med. 1992;152(5):946–52.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  65. Woolf SH, Grol R, Hutchinson A, Eccles M, Grimshaw J. Clinical guidelines: potential benefits, limitations, and harms of clinical guidelines. BMJ. 1999;318(7182):527–30.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP). Treatment guidelines and consensus papers. https://www.wfsbp.org/educational-activities/wfsbp-treatment-guidelines-and-consensus-papers/
  67. World Health Organisation (WHO). The ICD-10 classification of mental and behavioural disorders. Geneva: WHO; 1992.Google Scholar
  68. Yatham LN, Kennedy SH, O’Donovan C, Parikh S, MacQueen G, McIntyre R, et al. Canadian Network for Mood and Anxiety Treatments (CANMAT) guidelines for the management of patients with bipolar disorder: consensus and controversies. Bipolar Disord. 2005;7(Suppl 3):5–69.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  69. Yatham LN, Kennedy SH, O’Donovan C, Parikh SV, MacQueen G, McIntyre RS, et al. Canadian Network for Mood and Anxiety Treatments (CANMAT) guidelines for the management of patients with bipolar disorder: update 2007. Bipolar Disord. 2006;8(6):721–39.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  70. Yatham LN, Kennedy SH, Schaffer A, Parikh SV, Beaulieu S, O’Donovan C, et al. Canadian Network for Mood and Anxiety Treatments (CANMAT) and International Society for Bipolar Disorders (ISBD) collaborative update of CANMAT guidelines for the management of patients with bipolar disorder: update 2009. Bipolar Disord. 2009;11(3):225–55.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  71. Yatham LN, Kennedy SH, Parikh SV, Schaffer A, Beaulieu S, Alda M, et al. Canadian Network for Mood and Anxiety Treatments (CANMAT) and International Society for Bipolar Disorders (ISBD) collaborative update of CANMAT guidelines for the management of patients with bipolar disorder: update 2013. Bipolar Disord. 2013;15(1):1–44.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  72. Yatham LN, Kennedy SH, Parikh SV, Schaffer A, Bond DJ, Frey BN, et al. Canadian Network for Mood and Anxiety Treatments (CANMAT) and International Society for Bipolar Disorders (ISBD) 2018 guidelines for the management of patients with bipolar disorder. Bipolar Disord. 2018;20(2):97–170.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Psychiatry and NarcologyRiga Stradins UniversityRigaLatvia

Section editors and affiliations

  • Peter Riederer
    • 1
  1. 1.Center of Mental HealthDepartment of Psychiatry, Psychosomatics and Psychotherapy, University Hospital WürzburgWürzburgGermany

Personalised recommendations