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Diet, Epigenetics, and Alzheimer’s Disease

  • Andrea FusoEmail author
  • Cristina Domenichelli
Reference work entry

Abstract

Because of the longer average life span of the human population, age-associated cognitive deterioration is an increasing health concern in Western countries. Consequently, health maintenance throughout life has become one of the major challenges in population aging, and the consumption of healthy food is one of the key allies in the protection of brain function and preservation of cognitive abilities. Representing one of the most important lifestyle factors, diet can strongly influence the incidence of a range of inflammatory neurodegenerative conditions, most notably Alzheimer’s disease (AD), and thus a healthy diet is an essential factor for healthy aging. For example, a convincing body of evidence demonstrates that a Western diet – one high in saturated fat and refined carbohydrates – can damage various brain systems. These include dietary-induced reductions in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), insulin resistance, oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, and impaired blood-brain barrier integrity.

Keywords

Alzheimer’s disease Aging Nutrition Diet Mediterranean diet Ketogenic diet Caloric restriction Inflammation Metabolism DNA methylation Histone modifications Epigenetics 

List of Abbreviations

AD

Alzheimer’s disease

APP

Amyloid precursor protein

BBB

Blood-brain barrier

CR

Caloric restriction

KD

Ketogenic diet

MCI

Mild cognitive impairment

MD

Mediterranean diet

ROS

Reactive oxygen species

VaD

Vascular dementia

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Surgery “P. Valdoni”Sapienza University of RomeRomeItaly
  2. 2.Largo Alessandria del CarrettoRomeItaly

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