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Nutritional Regulation of Mammary miRNome: Implications for Human Studies

  • Christine LerouxEmail author
  • Dragan Milenkovic
  • Lenha Mobuchon
  • Sandrine Le Guillou
  • Yannick Faulconnier
  • Bruce German
  • Fabienne Le Provost
Reference work entry

Abstract

Mammary gland is the organ of milk component synthesis that provides the nutrients for growth and development of the mammalian neonate. In addition to macronutrients like proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids known for their roles in providing substrate and energy, a new class of components has been identified notably microRNA that have signaling roles regulating a large set of biological processes. MicroRNAs, short noncoding RNAs, have been reported to act on the mammary tissues, influencing mammary development and milk component biosynthesis, and evidence is now assembling that they also signal to the infant. The expression profile of these miRNAs can be under nutritional regulation. Their presence in milk and their relative persistency through industrial treatment open new way of investigations to use them as biomarkers of animal health, as well as to evaluate their effects on the health of those consuming them. Due to the role of miRNAs on human health and diseases, their transfer from milk or milk products to infants and adults is being actively researched, though their bioavailability is not known. Research is defining their distribution in the different fractions of milk (such as cells, exosomes, fat globule, or skim milk). Indeed, the unique packaging of miRNAs could be crucial for their action through the intestinal tract. The value of milk miRNAs to diverse aspects of human health is now an emerging field of science.

Keywords

MicroRNA miRNome Nutritional regulation Expression Bovine Caprine Human Mammary gland Milk Healthy food 

List of Abbreviations

3′UTR

Three prime untranslated region

ACACA

Acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1

ACSL1

Acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain family member 1

CSN1S1

Casein alpha S1

CSN2

Casein beta

DNA

Deoxyribonucleic acid

ESR1

Estrogen receptor 1

FASN

Fatty acid synthase

GLUT1

Glucose transporter 1

GMEC

Goat mammary epithelial cells

HER2

Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2

MEC

Mammary epithelial cells

MG

Mammary gland

miRNA

Microribonucleic acid

NGS

Next-generation sequencing

PPARG

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma

RISC

RNA-induced silencing complex

SCD1

Stearoyl-CoA desaturase

SREBP1

Sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christine Leroux
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Dragan Milenkovic
    • 3
    • 4
  • Lenha Mobuchon
    • 1
  • Sandrine Le Guillou
    • 5
  • Yannick Faulconnier
    • 1
  • Bruce German
    • 2
  • Fabienne Le Provost
    • 5
  1. 1.Herbivore Research Unit -Biomarkers TeamFrench Institut of Agricultural Research (INRA)St Genès-ChampanelleFrance
  2. 2.Department of Food Science and TechnologyUniversity of California DavisDavisUSA
  3. 3.School of Medicine, Division of Cardiovascular MedicineUniversity of California DavisDavisUSA
  4. 4.Department of Human NutritionFrench Institut of Agricultural Research (INRA)St Genès-ChampanelleFrance
  5. 5.Génétique Animale et Biologie IntégrativeFrench Institut of Agricultural Research (INRA)Jouy-en-JosasFrance

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