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Energy Metabolism and Epigenetics

  • Scott J. BultmanEmail author
Reference work entry

Abstract

The mammalian genome is packaged as chromatin, which influences all enzyme-catalyzed processes that utilize DNA as a template including transcription, DNA replication, the DNA damage response and repair, and meiotic recombination. This is why epigenetic writers, readers, and erasers are so crucial for the regulation of genome function. Epigenetic mechanisms are tightly integrated with energy metabolism. For example, methyltransferase and acetyltransferase enzymes that modify DNA and histones require intermediary energy metabolites such as S-adenosylmethionine and acetyl-CoA as essential co-factors. To extend the analogy, epigenetic writers require epigenetic ink. The underlying logic of this relationship is that nutrient availability and cellular metabolism can regulate gene expression and genome function to maintain homeostasis. This review will focus on the functional interplay between epigenetic and metabolic mechanisms and discuss why this is relevant for health and disease prevention with an emphasis on cancer.

Keywords

DNA methylation Histone methylation Histone acetylation Energy metabolites SAM Acetyl CoA NAD+ TETs Sirtuins HATs 

List of Abbreviations

CpG

Cytosine-guanine dinucleotide with phosphodiester (p) linkage

DNMT

DNA methyltransferase

SAM

S-Adenosylmethionine

1C

1 carbon

DMR

Differentially methylated region

ChIP

Chromatin immunoprecipitation

SNP

Single-nucleotide polymorphism

IGF

Insulin-like growth factor

ROS

Reactive oxygen species

TET

Ten-eleven translocation

α-KG

α Ketoglutarate

TCA

Tricarboxylic acid

JMJD

Jumonji C domain

FAD

Flavin adenine dinucleotide

NAD+

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide

ATP

Adenosine triphosphate

PTM

Posttranslational modification

HAT

Histone acetyltransferase

HDAC

Histone deacetylase

SIRT

Sirtuin

AMPK

5′ adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase

PARP

Poly-ADP-ribose polymerase

mTOR

Mechanistic target of rapamycin

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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of GeneticsLineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel HillChapel HillUSA

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