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Role of PIWI-Interacting RNA (piRNA) as Epigenetic Regulation

  • Danielle Queiroz CalcagnoEmail author
  • Elizangela Rodrigues da Silva Mota
  • Fabiano Cordeiro Moreira
  • Stefanie Braga Maia de Sousa
  • Rommel Rodríguez Burbano
  • Paulo Pimentel Assumpção
Reference work entry

Abstract

PIWI-interacting RNAs are a distinct group of small noncoding RNAs that are abundantly expressed in the animal germ line and are involved in silencing transposable genetic elements to maintain genome integrity. Accumulating evidence suggests that PIWI-interacting RNAs are also capable of mediating DNA methylation and thus can silence genes related to cancer, acting either as tumor suppressors or oncogenes. In recent years, several studies have significantly improved the understanding of PIWI-interacting RNA biogenesis, characterization, and function. Here, we discuss these recent findings and highlight some aspects of the role of PIWI-interacting RNAs in epigenetic modifications, the possible cancer implications and the effect of nutrition. Finally, we provide a brief description of the PIWI-interacting RNAs data analysis workflow and suggest some potential biological and clinical applications of these important molecules.

Keywords

ncRNA piRNA PIWI Primary biogenesis Ping-pong amplification AUB AGO3 Epigenetic regulation DNA methylation Histone modification Transposable elements Cancer piRNA-seq 

List of Abbreviation

10A

Adenosine at position 10

AGO3

Argonaute 3

AUB

Aubergine

ChIP

Chromatin immunoprecipitation

CTCs

Circulating tumor cells

DMR

Differentially methylated region

DNMT3L

DNA-methyltransferase 3-like

DNMTs

DNA methyltransferases

EMT

Epithelial mesenchymal transition

ERM

Ezrin/Radixin/Moesin

FSH

Follicle-stimulating hormone

H3K9

Histone H3 lysine 9

HENMT1

Hen methyltransferase homolog 1

HMTs

Histone methyltransferases

HP1

Heterochromatin 1 protein

LINE1

Long interspersed element-1

lncRNAs

Long noncoding RNAs

mRNA

Messenger RNA

miRNAs

MicroRNAs

ncRNAs

Noncoding RNAs

NGS

Next-generation sequencing

nt

Nucleotides

piRISC

piRNA-Induced silencing complex

piRNAs

PIWI-interacting RNAs

piRNA-seq

piRNA sequencing

PIWI

P-element Induced Wimpy Testis

PNLDC1

Poly(A)-specific ribonuclease PARN-like domain-containing protein 1

pre-piRNA

piRNA precursor

SAM

S-adenosylmethionine

SDMAs

Symmetric dimethylarginines

siRNAs

Small interfering RNAs

ssRNA

Single-stranded RNA

Su (var) 3–9

Suppressor of variegation 3–9

TDRD

Tudor domain

TEs

Transposable elements

Zuc

Zucchini

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Danielle Queiroz Calcagno
    • 1
    Email author
  • Elizangela Rodrigues da Silva Mota
    • 1
  • Fabiano Cordeiro Moreira
    • 1
  • Stefanie Braga Maia de Sousa
    • 1
  • Rommel Rodríguez Burbano
    • 2
  • Paulo Pimentel Assumpção
    • 1
  1. 1.Núcleo de Pesquisas em OncologiaUniversidade Federal do ParáBelémBrazil
  2. 2.Laboratório de Biologia MolecularHospital Ophir LoyolaBelémBrazil

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