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Silver and Histone Modifications

  • Yuko Ibuki
Reference work entry

Abstract

Silver (Ag) is used in a wide range of industries due to its antibacterial properties. The daily intake of Ag from the diet is estimated to be approximately 7 μg per person, and this is predicted to increase due to artificial treatments in food production chains and drinking water. Colloidal Ag and nano-sized Ag (AgNPs) have recently been used in dietary supplements and food packaging materials, respectively, and concerns have been raised over their safety. Ag is regarded as a safe metal; however, in vitro experiments recently revealed the genotoxicity of AgNPs. The toxic effects of AgNPs have mainly been attributed to the binding of released Ag ions with functional proteins and the formation of reactive oxygen species. Post-translational modifications in histones have been linked to a number of biological and toxicological processes as well as diseases, and carcinogenic metals are known to alter histone modifications, leading to changes in gene expression. Although few Ag-induced histone modifications have been reported to date, we demonstrated that AgNPs induced the phosphorylation of histone H2AX at serine 139 based on DNA damage and the phosphorylation of histone H3 at serine 10. In this review, these histone modifications are mainly introduced with other related modifications. Histone modifications have been suggested to change the chromatin structure, followed by alterations in the formation and repair of DNA damage. These changes may play a role in the enhanced genotoxicity and carcinogenicity of Ag when it is coexposed with other genotoxic factors.

Keywords

Silver Nanoparticles Disinfection Drinking water Food packaging Histone Phosphorylation Acetylation Chromatin DNA damage Ultraviolet rays 

List of Abbreviations

DSBs

Double-strand breaks

GSH

Glutathione

HDACs

Histone deacetylases

HDACI

HDAC inhibitor

AgNPs

Nano-sized Ag

NOAEL

No observable adverse effect level

γ-H2AX

Phosphorylation of histone H2AX

p-H3S10

Phosphorylation of histone H3 at serine 10

ROS

Reactive oxygen species

Ag

Silver

SB

Sodium butyrate

UV

Ultraviolet

WHO

World Health Organization

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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Graduate Division of Nutritional and Environmental SciencesUniversity of ShizuokaShizuokaJapan

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