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Dietary Methylselenocysteine and Epigenetic Regulation of Circadian Gene Expression

  • Helmut Zarbl
  • Mingzhu FangEmail author
Reference work entry

Abstract

Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element. Methylselenocysteine (MSC) is an organic form of selenium obtained primarily through dietary ingestion. Selenium, especially MSC, showed significant inhibitory effect on mammary tumorigenesis, especially at early stages, in carcinogen-induced rat mammary tumor models. However the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Accumulating evidence indicates that disruption of circadian rhythm by shift work or jet lag increases the risk of breast, prostate, and colon cancers. About 10% of genes, including many genes involved in hormone signaling and DNA damage response and repair (DDRR), are under circadian control and as a result show significant oscillation in expression across the day. Recent mechanism studies demonstrated that MSC restored and enhanced circadian expression of major clock genes, especially Period 2 (Per2), and circadian-controlled genes to inhibit mammary tumorigenesis induced by carcinogens in rats. Moreover, MSC restores and enhances circadian gene expression by increasing NAD+/NADH and SIRT1 activity and modulated acetylation of circadian regulatory protein, BMAL1, and histone 3 associated with Per2 gene promoter. This chapter will focus on how the dietary chemopreventive regimen of MSC epigenetically modulates the circadian rhythm at molecular level and how it contributes to its chemopreventive activity.

Keywords

Methylselenocysteine Nitrosomethylurea Chemoprevention Breast cancer Circadian rhythm NAD+ SIRT1 activity Acetylation Period 2 DNA damage response and repair 

List of Abbreviations

AcBMAL1

Acetylated BMAL1

AcH3K9

Acetylated histone 3 lysine 9

CCG

Circadian-controlled gene

CG

Circadian (clock) gene

DDRR

DNA damage response and repair

F344

Fisher 344 rat strain

MSC

Methylselenocysteine

NMU

Nitrosomethylurea

SCN

Suprachiasmatic nucleus

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Copyright information

© This is a U.S. government work and not under copyright protection in the U.S.; foreign copyright protection may apply 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, School of Public Health Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences InstituteRutgers, The State University of New JerseyPiscatawayUSA

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