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MicroRNAs as Neuroregulators

  • Ketan S. Patil
  • Simon G. MøllerEmail author
Reference work entry

Abstract

Neurodegeneration affects millions of individuals worldwide, and our knowledge of its disease pathogenesis is constantly changing with new research. The lack of a complete understanding of its disease pathogenesis makes the development of therapy difficult, but the discovery that microRNAs are intimately linked to neurodegeneration has unraveled new avenues in the field. Numerous microRNAs have been shown to be deregulated in neurodegeneration and can further regulate the expression of genes involved in neurodegeneration. There are also an increasing number of studies showing the effect of diet and nutrition on microRNA expression. In addition, interactions between microRNA- and epigenetic-mediated gene regulatory circuits have been reported, promising to increase our understanding of microRNAs within a bigger picture. In this chapter we review the role of microRNAs in neurodegeneration and how various endogenous and exogenous factors, including diet and nutrition, may influence the overall context.

Keywords

MicroRNAs Neurodegeneration Nutrition Disease Regulation 

List of Abbreviations

AD

Alzheimer’s disease

ALS

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

APP

Amyloid precursor protein

Amyloid beta

BACE1

Beta-secretase 1

BCL2

B-cell lymphoma 2 protein

CBD

Corticobasal degeneration

CREB1

CAMP-responsive element-binding protein

CSF

Cerebrospinal fluid

DLB

Dementia with Lewy bodies

DNMT3A

DNA (cytosine-5)-methyltransferase 3A

EGR1

Early growth response protein 1

Epi2miR

Effect of epigenetic modifications on miRNAs

eRNA

Enhancer RNA

H3K4me3

Histone H3 protein subunit

HD

diseases

HDAC5

Histone deacetylase 5

HTT

Huntingtin

LNA

Locked nucleic acid

LRRK2

Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2

miR2Epi

Effect of miRNAs on epigenetic modifications

miRNAs

microRNAs

MSA

Multiple system atrophy

ncRNA

Non-coding RNA

NEFH

Neurofilament heavy subunit

nt

Nucleotides

p-bodies

Processing bodies

PD

Parkinson’s disease

PDCD4

Programmed cell death protein 4

pri-miRNA

Primary miRNA

PSP

Progressive supranuclear palsy

PTBP1

Polypyrimidine tract-binding protein-1 (PTBP1)

SCA

Spinocerebellar ataxia

SIRT1

Sirtuin-1

SNCA

Alpha-synuclein

SPTLC1

Serine palmitoyl transferase 1

TF

Transcription factors

TRD

Trinucleotide repeat disorders

UPDRS

Unified Parkinson’s disease rating scale

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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biological SciencesSt. John’s UniversityNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.Norwegian Center for Movement DisordersStavanger University HospitalStavangerNorway

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