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The Epigenetically Modulated Circadian System: Implications for Nutrition and Health. Nutritional Modulation of the Circadian Epigenome

  • Lidia DaimielEmail author
Reference work entry

Abstract

The biological clock is a complex puzzle of molecular pieces that must work coordinately to ensure a proper cellular function. The circadian epigenome is the most recently discovered set of clock molecular pieces. It involves DNA methylation, histone acetylation/deacetylation, histone methylation/demethylation, and noncoding RNAs. These epigenomic modifications related to the circadian system add complexity to this process. In this regard, the circadian system is similar to the solar system with the CLOCK/BMAL1 heterodimer in the center and the other molecular and epigenomic components of the circadian system orbiting around it. The particular characteristic of the epigenome is that it is modifiable and environmental factors can affect it. Diet is one of the most important environmental factors affecting human health. We must bear in mind that diet is the only environmental factor to which we are exposed along our lives several times every day. We are even exposed to the diet of our mothers before birth. This is important because mother feeding animal studies have shown that mother diet affect circadian-related histone modifications. Diet also modifies circadian-related microRNAs. Here, we described each level of the circadian epigenome and give an insight of how diet modifies each one of them.

Keywords

Circadian system Epigenome Histone acetylation/deacetylation Histone methylation/demethylation DNA methylation MicroRNAs Noncoding RNAs Chronodisruption Metabolic disorders Cardiovascular disease Nutrition 

List of Abbreviations

CCGs

Clock-controlled genes

CVD

Cardiovascular disease

H3

Histone 3

HFD

High-fat diet

KO

Knockout

lincRNAs

Large intergenic noncoding RNAs

Lys

Lysine

MetS

Metabolic syndrome

PWS

Prader-Willi syndrome

SCN

Suprachiasmatic nucleus

snoRNAs

Small nucleolar RNAs

T2DM

Type 2 diabetes mellitus

Notes

Acknowledgments

Servier Medical Art images have been used in the figures included in this manuscript. These images can be used under Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. http://www.servier.com/Powerpoint-image-bank

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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Nutritional Genomics of the Cardiovascular Disease and ObesityFoundation IMDEA Food CEI UAM + CSICMadridSpain
  2. 2.Department of Nutrition and Bromatology, Facultad de FarmaciaUniversidad San Pablo-CEU, CEU universitiesBoadilla del Monte, MadridSpain

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