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Regulatory Roles of PARP-1 and Lipids in Epigenetic Mechanisms

  • Maria Rosaria Faraone-MennellaEmail author
  • Annalisa Masi
  • Carla FerreriEmail author
Reference work entry

Abstract

Epigenetic modifications, reversibly controlling gene expression, are crucial for interpreting the genome under the influence of physiological factors. The basic processes (DNA methylation and histone modification, DNA accessibility, and chromatin structure) which characterize epigenetics are regulated by an orchestrated series of events. The spectrum of these events is becoming wider and wider, increasing the complexity of the interplay between the basic processes and the multiple side mechanisms responsive to environmental stimuli. The “histone code hypothesis” suggests that combinations of different histone modifications may regulate chromatin structure and transcriptional activity. Among these modifications, a crucial role is played by poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation, the reaction catalyzed by poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase-1 widely recognized as a “genome guardian” for driving the repair of damaged DNA. Increasing evidence indicates also that alterations in membrane phospholipid composition and lipid metabolism may play a role in epigenetics. Moreover, a “lipid code” has been proposed since in the nucleus a lipid fraction is present that seems tightly bound to DNA.

This review will analyze these topics and their possible interplay in epigenetic regulation and discuss the relative role of nutritional and environmental challenges.

Keywords

DNA damage Diet Epigenetics Fatty acids Histone modification Lipidation Lipidomic Lipid rafts Poly(ADP-ribose) Poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase 

List of Abbreviations

4-HNE

4-Hydroxynonenale

ADP-ribose

Adenosine diphosphate ribose

AMPK

5′-Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase

COX

Cyclooxygenase

DHA

Docosahexaenoic acid

EPA

Eicosapentaenoic acid

ER

Estrogen receptor

FASN

Fatty acid synthase

FOXO1

Forkhead box protein O1

HDAC

Histone deacetylase

LOX

Lipoxygenase

MCF-7

Michigan cancer foundation-7

mtDNA

Mitochondrial DNA

mTOR

Mammalian target of rapamycin

NAD+

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide

ncRNA

Noncoding RNA

NF-κB

Nuclear factor-κB

PAR

Poly(ADP-ribose)

PARP

poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase

PKCζ

Protein kinase C ζ

PPAR

Peroxisome proliferator-activating receptor

PUFA

Polyunsaturated fatty acid

RAF

Rapidly accelerated fibrosarcoma

ROS

Reactive oxygen species

SIRT1

Sirtuin 1

SREBP

Sterol regulatory element-binding protein

STAT3

Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of BiologyUniversity of Naples “Federico II”NaplesItaly
  2. 2.Institute of Organic Synthesis and Photoreactivity (ISOF), CNRBolognaItaly

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