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Extra Virgin Olive Oil and Corn Oil and Epigenetic Patterns in Breast Cancer

  • Raquel MoralEmail author
  • Eduard Escrich
Reference work entry

Abstract

Breast cancer is the leading neoplasia in women worldwide. Nutrition and especially dietary lipids can influence mammary carcinogenesis through multiple mechanisms. This works aims to get insight into the effects of two common oils, extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) and corn oil, on mammary carcinogenesis and the molecular mechanisms of such effects. The administration of a diet high in corn oil (HCO) from weaning had a clear stimulating effect on 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced mammary carcinogenesis, increasing the morphological and clinical degree of tumor malignancy, while a high-EVOO diet has a weak tumor-enhancing effect. The HCO diet modified gene expression profiles in mammary gland and tumors, downregulating genes with a role in apoptosis and immune system. On the contrary, the high-EVOO diet mainly modulated genes with a role in metabolism. These effects may be a consequence of an influence on the epigenetic machinery. Thus, the high-EVOO diet increased global DNA methylation in the mammary gland, mainly around puberty, and also in experimental mammary tumors. In relation to gene-specific methylation, the HCO diet, but not the high EVOO one, increased the total DNA methyltransferase activity in mammary glands and tumors, concomitantly with the increase in Rassf1a and Timp3 promoter methylation. Both high-fat diets may influence the modification of histones (the levels of H3K4me2, H3K27me3, H4K16ac, and H4K20me3), especially in the mammary gland. Although there is little data reported at other epigenetic levels, the differential effects of the diets are likely to be also due to different modification of microRNA patterns. Considering the unspecific tumor-promoting effect of all high-fat diets, the results suggest some beneficial effect of EVOO that counteracts the deleterious influence of excessive fat intake. The EVOO minor components may have a key role in such beneficial effects modulating, at least in part, the epigenetic machinery.

Keywords

Breast cancer Mediterranean diet High-fat diets Extra virgin olive oil N-6 PUFA DMBA Experimental mammary tumors Mammary gland Global DNA methylation DNMT activity Rassf1a Timp3 Histone H3 Histone H4 

List of Abbreviations

DMBA

7,12-Dimethylbenz(a)anthracene

DNMT

DNA methyltransferase

EVOO

Extra virgin olive oil

H3K4me2

Dimethylation at lysine 4 of histone H3

H3K27me3

Trimethylation at lysine 27 of histone H3

H4K16ac

Acetylation at lysine 16 of histone H4

H4K20me3

Trimethylation at lysine 20 of histone H4

HCO

High corn oil

HDAC

Histone deacetylase

HEVOO

High extra virgin olive oil

LF

Low fat

MUFA

Monounsaturated fatty acid

PUFA

Polyunsaturated fatty acid

Notes

Acknowledgments

Research in the authors’ laboratory is funded by grants from “Plan Nacional de I+D+I” (AGL2006-07691; AGL2011-24778); “Fundación Patrimonio Comunal Olivarero (FPCO)” (FPCO2008-165.396; FPCO2013-CF611.084); “Agencia para el Aceite de Oliva del Ministerio de Medio Ambiente y de Medio Rural y Marino” (AAO2008-165.471); “Organización Interprofesional del Aceite de Oliva Español (OIAOE)” (OIP2009-CD165.646); “Departaments d’Agricultura, Alimentació i Acció Rural, i de Salut de la Generalitat de Catalunya” (GC2010-165.000); and FPCO and OIAOE (FPCO-OIP2016-CF614.087). The sponsors had no role in study designs, data collection and analyses, interpretation of results, preparation of the manuscript, and the decision to submit the manuscript for publication or the writing of the manuscript. The authors are grateful to I. Costa, R. Escrich, C. Rodríguez-Miguel, M.C. Ruiz de Villa, M. Solanas, and E. Vela for their collaboration in these studies.

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Multidisciplinary Group for the Study of Breast Cancer, Department of Cell Biology, Physiology and Immunology, Physiology Unit, Faculty of MedicineUniversitat Autònoma de BarcelonaBarcelonaSpain

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