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Diet and Epigenetic Alteration of Renal Function

  • Eva Nüsken
  • Kai-Dietrich Nüsken
  • Jörg DötschEmail author
Reference work entry

Abstract

Adequate nutrition is fundamental to ensure undisturbed renal development. Macro- and micronutrient deficiency as well as energy overload or high-salt intake during gestation may significantly impair nephrogenesis and induce susceptibility toward disease. In addition, there is growing evidence that nutrition during early postnatal life is an important modulator of adult blood pressure and kidney function. The exact renal phenotype strongly depends on the type of dietary influence and the window of exposure. Thus, reduced glomerular count, microvascular rarefaction, and increased fibrosis are possible morphological findings. On the functional level, blood pressure levels, urinary protein excretion, and glomerular filtration rate are subject to dietary influences. Mechanistically, dysregulation of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) components and other vasoactive substances, oxidative stress, altered mitochondrial energy metabolism, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and inflammatory processes are key factors. The present chapter gives an overview on current knowledge of dietary programming of renal disease. Defining the adequate amount of macro- and micronutrients which is needed for optimal kidney development remains a challenge for the future.

Keywords

Blood pressure Glomerular count Glomerular filtration rate High-fat diet High-salt diet Low-protein diet Micronutrient deficiency Nephrogenesis Nephron number Proteinuria Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system 

List of Abbreviations

ACE

Angiotensin-converting enzyme

ACH09

Grape skin extract with antioxidant properties

AGT

Angiotensinogen

AT1

Angiotensin II receptor type 1

AT2

Angiotensin II receptor type 2

AMPK

5′ adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase

BiP

ER stress marker

CD2AP

CD2-associated protein

CHOP

ER stress marker

CR

Calorie restriction

eGFR

Estimated glomerular filtration rate

ER stress

Endoplasmic reticulum stress

GFR

Glomerular filtration rate

HFD

High-fat diet

IQ

Intelligence quotient

IUGR

Intrauterine growth restriction

KIM-1

Kidney injury molecule-1, biomarker for renal proximal tubule injury

LCPUFAs

Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids

LP

Low protein

mTORC1

Mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1

NaCl

Sodium chloride

NCC

Sodium-chloride symporter

NGAL

Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, biomarker for acute kidney injury

NKCC2

Sodium-potassium-chloride cotransporter

PR

Protein restriction

RAAS

Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system

SGA

Small for gestational age

SS-31

Substance which protects mitochondrial cristae

TRPC6

Transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily C, member 6

US

United States

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Eva Nüsken
    • 1
  • Kai-Dietrich Nüsken
    • 1
  • Jörg Dötsch
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric NephrologyUniversity of CologneCologneGermany
  2. 2.Department of PediatricsUniversity of CologneCologneGermany

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