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Epigenetic Impact of Indoles and Isothiocyanates on Cancer Prevention

  • Pushpinder KaurEmail author
  • Jaspreet Kaur
Reference work entry

Abstract

Cruciferous vegetables are an excellent source of sulfur-containing compounds called glucosinolates, and their hydrolysis products, such as indoles and isothiocyanates, exert their chemopreventive effect by altering epigenetic mechanisms. These bioactive food components have gained more widespread attention as the potential agent for cancer prevention among other phytochemicals. Many studies have demonstrated the impact of indoles and isothiocyanates in modulating the epigenome in diverse human cancers and in the fetus. This review summarizes the evidence from preclinical and clinical studies on the impact of indole and isothiocyanates on epigenetic events and how they relate to chemopreventive effects in the lung, prostate, breast, cervix, and transplacental carcinogenesis. We also discussed the remaining challenges and the research required to gather additional necessary information to identify the promising therapeutical potential of indoles and isothiocyanates in treating and preventing cancer.

Keywords

Indole Isothiocyanate Diet Transplacental Cancer chemoprevention Epigenetics 

List of Abbreviations

AhR

Aryl hydrocarbon receptor

BaP

Benzo[a]pyrene

BII

2,3-bis[3-indoylmethyl] indole

BR-DIM

BioResponse DIM

BRCA1

Breast cancer 1

CDC2

Cell division cycle 2

CDK2

Cyclin-dependent kinase 2

CIN

Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia

CTAs

Cancer testis antigens

CTR

Cyclic trimer

CYP1A1

Cytochrome P450 1A1

CYP1A2

Cytochrome P450 1A2

DBP

dibenzo[a,l]pyrene

DCIS

Ductal carcinoma in situ

DIM

Diindolylmethane

DNA

Deoxyribonucleic acid

DNMT3B

DNA methyltransferase 3B

DNMTi

DNMT inhibitors

DNMTs

DNA methyltransferases

EMT

Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition

ERK1/2

Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2

ERVs

Endogenous retroviruses

GD

Gestation day

GSTM1

Glutathione-S-transferase 1

H3

Histone H3

H4

Histone H4

HATs

Histone acetylases

HDAC

Histone deacetylase

HDAC1

Histone deacetylase 1

I3C

Indole-3-carbinol

ICZ

Indolocarbazole

LTR

Linear trimer

MI

Myo-inositol

miRNA

microRNA

ncRNA

noncoding RNA

NF-kB

Nuclear factor kappa B

NNK

Nitrosamine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone

NQO1

NAD(P)H dehydrogenase [quinone] 1

Nrf2

Nuclear factor erythroid 2 (NF-E2)-related factor 2

NSCLC

Non-small cell lung cancer

PBMCs

Peripheral blood mononuclear cells

PEITC-NAC

N-acetyl-S-(N-2-phenethylthiocarbamoyl)-1-cysteine

PTEN

Phosphatase and tensin homolog

RNA

Ribonucleic acid

SAM

S-adenosyl methionine

SFN

Sulforaphane

SOX4

(Sex-determining region Y)-box 4

UGT1A1

UDP-glucuronosyl-transferase 1A1

UK

United Kingdom

US

United States

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.USC Keck School of MedicineUniversity of Southern CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA
  2. 2.Department of BiotechnologyUniversity Institute of Engineering and Technology, Panjab UniversityChandigarhIndia

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