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Hairy Roots and Phytoremediation

  • Anrini Majumder
  • Smita Ray
  • Sumita Jha
Reference work entry
Part of the Reference Series in Phytochemistry book series (RSP)

Abstract

Contamination of the environment arises either from natural geological processes or due to human activities and has created an alarming situation worldwide. Biological strategies for cleaning up contaminated biosphere have gained much importance in recent years and are preferred over other conventional physical and chemical methods because these are environmentally friendly and cost-effective. Phytoremediation is an ecologically compatible approach using plants to remediate polluted environment. Currently hairy roots have emerged as a notably competent research tool for phytoremediation among the various biological systems investigated for this purpose. Infection of certain plants caused by Agrobacterium rhizogenes is expressed in the form of hairy root disease. The disease is characterized by adventitious roots with copious root hairs developing elaborately from or next to the infection site. The plant genome receives a set of genes from a segment of the large root inducing (Ri) plasmid of A. rhizogenes. Under the effect of these genes, the inherent hormonal balance of the plant is altered resulting in the development of hairy roots. In nature, plant roots are the primary organs having contact with the environmental contaminants. Thus, hairy roots have been used in phytoremediation research as physiologically they resemble the normal roots of the mother plants. Several studies demonstrate the potentiality of hairy roots in removing a vast array of both organic and inorganic pollutants from the environment. In addition, microorganisms colonizing the rhizosphere of hairy roots have also proved to improve the efficacy of hairy roots in eliminating contaminants. The purpose of this review is to summarize the applications of hairy roots in different phytoremediation strategies and provide examples and prospects of the use of hairy roots in the removal of organic and inorganic contaminants from the environment.

Keywords

Agrobacterium rhizogenes Hairy roots Inorganic pollutants Organic pollutants Phytoremediation 

Abbreviations

2,4-DCP

2,4-dichlorophenol

AMF

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus

Cd

Cadmium

cv

Cultivar

DDT

1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis-(4´-chlorophenyl)ethylene

DNA

Deoxyribonucleic acid

FTIR

Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

GC–MS

Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry

h

Hour

HPLC

High-performance liquid chromatography

kb

Kilobase

min

Minute

NADH–DCIP reductase

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide reduced–dichlorophenolindophenol reductase

Ni

Nickel

OBZ

Oxybenzone

PCB

Polychlorinated biphenyl

Px

Peroxidase

TCE

Trichloroethylene

T-DNA

Transferred DNA

TNT

2,4,6-trinitrotoluene

U

Uranium

UV

Ultraviolet

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centre of Advanced Study, Department of BotanyUniversity of CalcuttaKolkataIndia
  2. 2.Bethune CollegeKolkataIndia

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