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The Anti-inflammatory Properties of Food Polar Lipids

  • Ronan Lordan
  • Constantina Nasopoulou
  • Alexandros Tsoupras
  • Ioannis Zabetakis
Living reference work entry
Part of the Reference Series in Phytochemistry book series (RSP)

Abstract

Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the leading cause of death globally. Inflammation is central to the pathology of CVD and is present throughout the atherosclerotic process. Unresolved inflammation can lead to atherosclerosis and the subsequent development of CVD that can cause a major cardiovascular event. Lifestyle and nutrition are modifiable risk factors for the prevention of CVD. Research shows that some dietary patterns, such as the Mediterranean diet, are associated with a decreased risk of CVD. Polar lipids, which are found in abundance in foods of the Mediterranean diet, are lipids that possess potent anti-inflammatory and antithrombotic effects against the actions of platelet-activating factor (PAF). PAF is potent phospholipid mediator of inflammation that plays a significant role in all stages of atherosclerosis. Bioactive lipids present in various foods can inhibit the pro-inflammatory activities of PAF via their effects on the PAF/PAF receptor (PAF-R) signaling but also via modulating PAF metabolism toward homeostasis. This chapter reviews the relevant research pertaining to the anti-inflammatory and cardioprotective properties of polar lipids in various foods.

Keywords

Polar lipids Inflammation Platelet-activating factor Cardiovascular disease Mediterranean diet 

Abbreviations

CHD

Coronary heart disease

CRP

C-Reactive protein

CVD

Cardiovascular disease

FA

Fatty acids

HDL-C

High-density lipoprotein cholesterol

IHD

Ischemic heart disease

IL-6

Interleukin-6

LDL-C

Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol

Lyso-PAF AT

Lyso-PAF acetyltransferases

MFGM

Milk fat globule membrane

MI

Myocardial infarction

PAF

Platelet-activating factor

PAF-AH

PAF acetylhydrolase

PAF-CPT

PAF-cholinephosphotransferase

PAF-R

Platelet-activating factor receptor

PC

Phosphatidylcholine

PE

Phosphatidylethanolamine

PI

Phosphatidylinositol

PS

Phosphatidylserine

ROS

Reactive oxygen species

SFA

Saturated fatty acids

SM

Sphingomyelin

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank the Department of Biological Sciences, University of Limerick, Limerick, Ireland, for their continued support.

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ronan Lordan
    • 1
  • Constantina Nasopoulou
    • 2
  • Alexandros Tsoupras
    • 1
  • Ioannis Zabetakis
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Biological SciencesUniversity of LimerickLimerickIreland
  2. 2.Department of Food Science and Nutrition, School of the EnvironmentUniversity of the AegeanMyrinaGreece

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