Nutrients and Nutraceuticals from Seafood

  • V. Venugopal
Living reference work entry

Latest version View entry history

Part of the Reference Series in Phytochemistry book series (RSP)


Seafood comprising of finfish and shellfish significantly contribute to world food security. Seafood species are nutritious since they are rich in proteins and other nutrients including peptides, essential amino acids, long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, carotenoids, vitamins including vitamin B12, and minerals such as calcium, copper, zinc, sodium, potassium, selenium, iodine, and others. Commercial fish processing generates about 30 million metric tons of discards consisting of shell, head, bones, intestines, fin, skin, etc. These discards are rich in several nutraceuticals and biologically active compounds, which include oils containing omega-3 PUFA; carotenoids such as astaxanthin and β-carotene; proteins including myosin, collagen, and gelatin; enzymes; essential amino acids and peptides; polysaccharides and their derivatives including chitin, chitosan, glucosamine, and glycosaminoglycans; and mineral-based compounds. These compounds, depending on their nature, can have varying physiological functions including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, antitumor, anti-obesity, anticoagulant, antimicrobial, immunomodulatory, and other activities, which are valuable in healthcare. Marine biotechnology offers several techniques to isolate these nutraceuticals from seafood and their processing discards. This article briefly surveys nutrients and nutraceutical contents of seafood and their potential benefits in human nutrition and healthcare and current commercial status.


Seafood Processing discards Nutrients Nutraceuticals Health benefits Marine biotechnology 



Amino acid score


Coronary heart disease


Chondroitin sulfate


Cardiovascular disease


Docosahexaenoic acid


Essential amino acids


Eicosapentaenoic acid


Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations


Food and Drug Administration, USA


Food Standard Agency, UK


Monounsaturated fatty acid


National Marine Fisheries Service, USA


Protein efficiency ratio


Recommended Dietary Allowance


Reactive oxygen species


Saturated fatty acid


United States Department of Agriculture


World Health Organization


  1. 1.
    FAO (2016) The state of world fisheries aquaculture: contributing to food security and nutrition for all. Food Agriculture Organization, Rome, 200 p. Available from: Accessed 1 Oct 2016Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Sachindra MM, Mahendrakar MS (2015) Fish processing by-products: quality assessment and applications. Studium Press, Houston, p 413Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kelleher K (2005) Discards in the world’s marine fisheries: an update. Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome, fisheries technical paper no. 470, p. 131Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Venugopal V (2009) Marine products for healthcare: functional bioactive nutraceuticals from the ocean. CRC Press, Boca Raton, p 527Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kim S-K (ed) (2017) Marine nutraceuticals: prospects and perspectives. CRC Press, Boca Raton, p 464Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Venugopal VM, Lele S (2015) Nutraceuticals and bioactive compounds from seafood processing discard. In: Kim SK (ed) Springer handbook of marine biotechnology. Springer, Berlin, pp 1405–1425Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ohr LM (2007) Nutraceuticals: health foods at forefront. Food Technol 61(6):55–57Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Olsen RL, Toppe J, Karunasagar I (2014) Challenges and realistic opportunities in the use of by-products from processing of fish and shellfish. Trends Food Sci Technol 36:144–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Gul K, Singh AK, Jabeen R (2014) Nutraceuticals and functional foods: the foods for the future world. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 56:2617–2627CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Eskin NAM, Tamir S (2006) Dictionary of nutraceuticals and functional foods. CRC Press, Boca Raton, p 520Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Arai S (1996) Studies on functional foods in Japan – state of the art. Biosci Bitech Biochem 60:9–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hasler CM (1998) Functional foods: their role in disease prevention health promotion. J Food Technol 52:63–68Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Plaza M, Cifuentes A, Ibáñez E (2008) In the search of new functional food ingredients from algae. Trends Food Sci Technol 19:31–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    FAO/INFOODS (2016) Global food composition database for fish and shellfish. Version 10- uFiSh10. Food Agriculture Organization, Rome. Available from: Accessed 6 Jan 2017
  15. 15.
    USDA (2012) United States Department of Agriculture. 2012. Food composition databases. USDA national nutrient database for stard reference. Available from: Accessed 2016 October 4.
  16. 16.
    NMFS (1987) National Marine Fisheries Service. Proximate composition, energy, fatty acids, sodium, cholesterol contents of finfish, shellfish their products. In: Krzynowek J, Murphy J (eds) Technical report no.74. National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Department of Health UK (2013) Nutrient analysis of fish and fish products. Available from: Accessed 4 Feb 2017
  18. 18.
    FSANZ (2011) Food nutrient database. Available from: Accessed 6 Aug 2017
  19. 19.
    Dong FM (2001) The nutritional value of shellfish. Washington Sea Grant: WSG-MR 09-03. US National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration, Seattle, pp 4–8Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Nettleton JA, Exler J (1992) Nutrients in wild and farmed fish shellfish. J Food Sci 57:257–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Venugopal V, Shahidi F (1996) Structure and composition of fish muscle. Food Rev Int 12:175–197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Venugopal V (2006) Seafood processing: adding value through quick freezing, retortable packaging and cook-chilling. CRC Press, Boca Raton, p 504Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Venugopal V, Gopakumar K (2017) Shellfish: nutritive value, health benefits and consumer safety. Comp Rev Food Sci Food Safety 16:1219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Coppes Petricorena Z (2015) Chemical composition of fish and fishery products. In: Cheung PCK, Mehta BM (eds) Handbook of food chemistry. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, pp 403–435CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    SELFNutritionData. Available from: Accessed 15 Oct 2016
  26. 26.
    Karnjanapratum S, Benjakul S, Kishimura H, Tsar V-H (2013) Chemical composition nutritional value of Asian hard clam Meretrix lusoria from the coast of Aman Sea. Food Chem 141:4138–4145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Cherif S, Frikha F, Gargouri Y, Miled N (2008) Fatty acid composition of green crab (Carcinus mediterraneus) from the Tunisian Mediterranean coasts. Food Chem 111:930–933CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Turan T, KayaY EME (2011) Proximate composition, cholesterol and fatty acid content of brown shrimp (Crangon crangon L.1758) from Sinop Region, Black Sea. J Aquatic Food Prod Technol 20:100–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Sriket P, Benjakul S, Visessanguan W, Kijroongrojan K (2007) Comparative studies on chemical composition: thermal properties of black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) and white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) meats. Food Chem 103:1199–1207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Zarai Z, Frikha F, Balti R, Miled N, Gargouri N, Mejdoub N (2011) Nutrient composition of the marine snail Hexaplex trunculus from the Tunisian Mediterranean coasts. J Sci Food Agri 91:1265–1270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Vaz-Pires P, Seixas P, Mota M et al (2004) Sensory, microbiological, physical and nutritional properties of iced whole common octopus, Octopus vulgaris. LWT Food Sci Technol 37:105–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Gopakumar K (1997) Biochemical composition of Indian food fishes. Central Institute of Fisheries Technology, Cochin. Accessed 3 May 2016Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Vijaykrishnaraj M, Prabhasankar P (2015) Marine protein hydrolyzates: their present future perspectives in food chemistry – a review. RSC Adv 5:34864–34867CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Shiau SY (1994) Seafood protein in human and animal nutrition. In: Sikorski ZE, Pan BS, Shahidi F (eds) Seafood proteins. Springer, BostonGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Weichselbaum E, Coe S, Buttriss J, Stanner S (2013) Fish in the diet: a review. Nutr Bull 38:128–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Hamed I, Ozogul F, Ozogul Y, Regenstein JM (2015) Marine bioactive compounds and their health benefits: a review. Comp Rev Food Sci Food Safety 14:446–465CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Friedman K (1996) Nutritive value of proteins from different food sources a review. J Agri Food Chem 44:6–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Dayal JS, Ponniah AG, Khan HI, Madhu Babu EP, Ambasankar K, Vasagham KPK (2013) Shrimps – a nutritional perspective. Current Sci (India) 104:1487–1491Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Dort J, Sirois A, Leblanc N, Coˆte´ CH, Jacques H (2012) Beneficial effects of cod protein on skeletal muscle repair following injury. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 37:489–498CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Gigliotti J, Jaczynski J, Tou JC (2008) Determination of the nutritional value, protein quality and safety of krill protein concentrate isolated using an isoelectric solubilization/precipitation technique. Food Chem 111:209–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Venugopal V, Chawla SP, Nair PM (1996) Spray dried protein powder from threadfin bream: preparation, properties and comparison with FPC type-B. J Muscle Foods 7:55–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Kim S-K, Venkatesan J (2015) Introduction to seafood science. In: Kim SK (ed) Seafood science: advances in chemistry, technology and applications. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 1–13Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Elmadfa I, Meyer AL (2017) Animal proteins as important contributors to a healthy human diet. Ann Rev Animal Biosci 5:111–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Phillips SM, Fulgoni III, VL, Heaney RP, Nicklas TA, et al (2015) Commonly consumed protein foods contribute to nutrient intake, diet quality, and nutrient adequacy. Am J Clin Nutr 1S–7S.
  45. 45.
    Konasu S, Yamaguchi K (1982) In: Martin RE, Flick GJ Jr, Hebard CE, Ward DR (eds) Chemistry and biochemistry of marine food products. AVI Publishing, WestportGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Kim J, Lall S (2000) Amino acid composition of whole body tissue of Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus), yellowtail flounder (Pleuronectes ferruginea) Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus). Aquaculture 187:367–373CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Huss HH, Ababouch L, Gram L (2003) Assessment management of seafood safety and quality. Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome, Technical paper no. 444Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Rosa R, Nunes ML (2004) Nutritional quality of red shrimp Aristeus antennatus Risso, pink shrimp Parapenaeus longirostris Lucas, and Norway lobster Nephrops norvegicus Linnaeus. J Sci Food Agric 8:89–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Ruiz-Capillas C, Moral A (2004) Free amino acids in muscle of Norway lobster Nephrops norvegicus L. in controlled and modified atmospheres during chilled storage. Food Chem 86:85–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Naczk M, Williams J, Brennan K, Chrika L, Shahidi F (2004) Compositional characteristics of green crab Carcinus maenas. Food Chem 88:429–434CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Erkan N, Selcuk A, Ozden O (2010) Amino acid and vitamin composition of raw and cooked horse mackerel. Food Anal Methods 3:269–275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Gildberg A (2004) Enzymes and bioactive peptides from fish discard related to fish silage, fish feed and fish sauce production. J Aquatic Food Prod Technol 13:3–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Militante JD, Lombardin JB (2004) Dietary taurine supplementation: hypolipidemic and antiatherogenic effects. Nutr Res 24:787–801CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Sun Q, Wang B, Li Y, Sun F, Li P et al (2016) Taurine supplementation lowers blood pressure improves vascular function in prehypertension: romized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Hypertension 67:541–549Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Gormley TR, Neumann T, Fagan JD, Brunton NP (2007) Taurine content of raw and processed fish fillets/portions. Eur Food Res Technol 225:837–842CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Passi S, Cataudella S, Ferrante I, De Simone F, Rastrelli L (2002) Fatty acid composition and antioxidant levels in muscle tissue of different Mediterranean marine species of fish and shellfish. J Agric Food Chem 50:7314–7322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Bono G, Gai F, Peiretti PG, Badalucco C, Palmegiano GB (2012) Chemical and nutritional characterization of the Central Mediterranean giant red shrimp Aristaeomorpha foliacea: influence of trophic and geographical factors on flesh quality. Food Chem 130:104–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Ozogul O, Duysak O, Ozogul F, Ozkutuk AS, Tureli C (2008) Seasonal effects in the nutritional quality of the body structural tissue of cephalopods. Food Chem 108:847–852CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Li G, Li J, Li D (2010) Seasonal variation in nutrient composition of Mytilus coruscus from China. J Agri Food Chem 58:7831–7837CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Kris-Etherton PM, Harris WS, Appel LJ (2002) Fish consumption fish oil omega-3 fatty acids and cardiovascular disease. Circulation 106:2747–2757CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Calder PC (2014) Very long chain omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids and human health. Eur J Lipid Sci Technol 116:1280–1300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Wall R, Ross RP, Fitzgerald GF, Stanton C (2010) Fatty acids from fish: the anti-inflammatory potential of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids. Nutr Rev 68:280–289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    de Carvalho CCR, Caramujo MJ (2017) Carotenoids in aquatic ecosystems aquaculture: a colorful business with implications for human health. Front. Mar Sci 4:1–13Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Soumya R, Sachindra NM (2015) Carotenoids from fishery resources. In: Sachindra NM, Mahendrakar NS (eds) Fish processing byproducts: quality assessment and applications. Studium Press, Houston, pp 273–298Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Zheng H, Liu H, Zhang T, Wang S, Sun Z, Liu W, Li Y (2010) Total carotenoid differences in scallop tissues of Chlamys nobilis (Bivalve: Pectinidae) with regard to gender shell colour. Food Chem 122:1164–1177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Choe E, Min DB (2006) Chemistry and reactions of reactive oxygen species in foods. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 46:1–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Chuyen VH, Eun J-B (2017) Marine carotenoids: bioactivities and potential benefits to human health. Crit Rev Food Sc Nutr 57:2600–2610CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Kaulman A, Bohn T (2014) Carotenoids inflammation and oxidative stress: implications of cellular signaling pathways relation to chronic disease prevention. Nutr Res 34:907–929CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Higuera-Ciapara I, Felix-Valenzuela L, Goycoolea FM (2006) Astaxanthin: a review of its chemistry and applications. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 46:185–196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Abeynayake R, Mendis E (2014) Anti-aging and immuno-enhancing properties of marine bioactive compounds. In: Kim SK (ed) Seafood science: advances in chemistry technology and applications. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 262–275Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Bogard JR, Thilsted SH, Marks GC, Wahab MA, Hossain MAR, Jakobsen J, Stangoulis J (2015) Nutrient composition of important fish species in Bangladesh potential contribution to recommended nutrient intakes. J Food Comp Anal 42:120–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Sunil Kumar BV, Singh S, Verma B (2017) Anticancer potential of dietary vitamin D ascorbic acid: a review. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 57:2623–2635CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Afonso C, Barra NM, Nunes L, Cardoso C (2014) Tocopherols in seafood and aquaculture products. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 56:128–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Gotoh N, Mashimo D, Oka T, Sekiguchi K, Tange M, Watanabe H, Noguchi N, Wada S (2011) Analyses of marine-derived tocopherol in processed foods containing fish. Food Chem 129:279–283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Watanabe F, Katsura H, Takenaka S, Enomoto T, Miyamoto E et al (2001) Characterization of vitamin B12 compounds from edible shellfish, clam, oyster, and mussel. Int J Food Sci Nutr 52:263–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Nunes ML, Barra NM, Batista I (2011) Health benefits associated with seafood consumption. In: Alasalvar C, Shahidi F, Miyashita K, Wanasundara U (eds) Handbook of seafood quality, safety and health. Wiley-Blackwell, Ames, Iowa, pp 369–379Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Küçükgülmez A, Çelik M, Yanar Y, Ersoy B, Cikrikci M (2006) Proximate composition and mineral contents of the blue crab Callinectes sapidus breast meat, claw meat and hepatopancreas. Int J Food Sci Technol 41:1023–1026CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Anonymous (2015) US Department of Health Human Services and the US Department of Agriculture 2015–2020 Dietary guidelines for Americans 8th ed. Accessed 3 July 2016
  79. 79.
    Wu Y-X, Li W, Jin T (2015) Preparation characterization of protein hydrolyzates from little loligo squid Uroteuthis chinensis. J Aquatic Food Prod Technol 24:42–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Barrento S, Marques A, Teixeira B, Anacleto P et al (2009) Effect of season on the chemical composition nutritional quality of the edible crab Cancer pagurus. J Agri Food Chem 57:10814–10824CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Maulvault AJ, Anacleto P, Lourenço HM, Carvallo ML, Nunes ML, Marques A (2012) Nutritional quality and safety of cooked edible crab Cancer Pagurus. Food Chem 133:277–283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Barrento S, Marques A, Teixeira B, Vaz-Pirez P, Nunes ML (2009) Nutritional quality of the edible tissues of European lobster Homarus gammarus and American lobster Homarus americanus. J Agri Food Chem 57:3645–3652CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Chakraborty K, Chakkalakal SJ, Joseph D, Asokan PK, Vijayan KK (2016) Nutritional and antioxidative attributes of green mussel, Perna viridis L from the southwestern coast of India. J Aquatic Food prod Technol 25:968–985CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Storelli MM, Garofalo R, Giungato D, Giacominelli-Stuffler R (2010) Intake of essential non-essential elements from consumption of octopus cuttlefish squid. Food Addit Cont Part B 3:14–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Chakraborty K, Chakkalakal SJ, Joseph D, Joy M (2016) Nutritional composition of edible oysters (Crassostrea madrasensis L.) from the southwest coast of India. J Aquatic Food Prod Technol 25:1172–1189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Venugopal V, Shahidi F (1995) Value added products from underutilized fish species. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 35:431–453CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Anal AK (2017) Seafood by-products in applications of biomedicine and cosmeticuals. In: Food processing by-products and their utilization. Wiley Blackwell, Hoboken, p 592CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Suleria HA, Masci P, Gobe G, Osborne S (2016) Current potential uses of bioactive molecules from marine processing discard. J Sci Food Agric 96:1064–1067CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Ghaly AE, Ramakrishman VV, Brooks MS, Budge SN, Dave D (2013) Fish processing discards as a potential source of proteins, amino acids and oils: a critical review. J Microb Biochem Technol 5:107–129Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Gencbay G, Turhan S (2016) Proximate composition and nutritional profile of the black sea anchovy (Engraulis encrasicholus) whole fish, fillets, and by-products. Aquatic Food Products Technol 25:864–874CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Senevirathne M, Kim SK (2012) Utilization of seafood processing by-products: medicinal applications. Adv Food Nutr Res 65:495–512CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Correia-da-Silva M, Sousa E, Pinto MMM, Kijjoa A (2017) Cancer preventive compounds from edible marine organisms. Semin Cancer Biol. pii: S1044-579X(17)30084-6
  93. 93.
    Nguyen TT, Barber AR, Corbin K, Zhang W (2017) Lobster processing by-products as valuable bioresource of marine functional ingredients, nutraceuticals, and pharmaceuticals. Bioresour Bioprocess 4:27. Epub 2017 Jun 22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Hultin HO, Kristinsson HG, Lanier TC, Park JW (2005) Process for recovery of functional proteins by pH shifts. In: Park JW (ed) Surimi and surimi seafood. Taylor and Francis, Boca Raton, pp 107–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Tahergorabi R, Beamer SK, Matak KE, Jaczynski J (2012) Isoelectric solubilization/precipitation as a means to recover protein isolate from striped bass (Morone saxatilis): its physicochemical properties in a nutraceutical seafood product. J Agric Food Chem 60:5979–5987CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Kristinsson HG, Rasco B (2000) Fish protein hydrolyzates: production, biochemical, and functional properties. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutri 40:43–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Herpandi NH, Rosma A, Wan Nadiah WA (2011) The tuna fishing industry: a new outlook on fish protein hydrolyzates. Comp Rev Food Sci Food Safety 10:195–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Shaviklo AR (2015) Development of fish protein powder as an ingredient for food applications: a review. J Food Sci Technol 52:648–666CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Sathivel S, Bechtel PJ (2006) Properties of soluble protein powders from Alaska pollock (Theragra chalcogramma). Int J Food Sci Technol 41:520–529CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Rudkowska I, Marcotte B, Pilon G, Lavigne C, Marette A, Vohl MC (2010) Fish nutrients decrease expression levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in cultured human macrophages. Physiol Genomics 40:189–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Wergedah H, Liaset B, Gudbrandsen OA et al (2004) Fish protein hydrolysate reduces plasma cholesterol, increases the proportion of HDL-cholesterol and lowers acyl-coA-cholesterol acyltransferase activity in liver of zucker rats. J Nutr 134:1320–1327Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Mathew S, Ninan G, Hema GS, Shiny K, Lakshmanan PT (2015) Fish collagen and gelatin. In: Sachindra MM, Mahendrakar MS (eds) Fish processing by-products: quality assessment and applications. Studium Press, Houston, pp 173–236Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Venugopal V (2012) Cosmeceucals from marine fish and shellfish. In: Kim SK (ed) Marine cosmeceuticals trends and prospects. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 211–232Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Bello AE, Oesser S (2006) Collagen hydrolyzate for the treatment of osteo-arthritis and other joint disorders: a review of the literature. Curr Med Res Opin 22:2221–2232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Siddiqui KS, Cavicchioli R (2006) Cold-adapted enzymes. Annu Rev Biochem 75:403–412CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Debashish G, Malay S, Barindra S, Joydeep M (2005) Marine enzymes. Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol 96:189–218Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Haard NF, Simpson BK (eds) (2006) Seafood enzymes: Utilization and influence on postharvest seafood quality. Marcel Dekker, New York, p 681Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Bougatef A (2013) Trypsins from fish processing discard: characteristics and biotechnological applications: comprehensive review. J Clean Prod 57:257–265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Venugopal V (2016) Enzymes from seafood processing discard their applications in seafood processing. In: Kim SK, Toldrá F (eds) Advances in food and nutrition research, vol 78. Academic Press, Burlington, pp 47–69Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Udanigwe CC, Aluko RE (2012) Food proteins-derived bioactive peptides: production, processing and potential health benefits. J Food Sci 87:2353–2357Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Manikkam V, Vasiljevic T, Donkor ON, Mathai ML (2016) A review of potential marine-derived hypotensive and anti-obesity peptides. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 56:92–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Ngo DH, Vo TS, Ngo DN, Wijesekara I, Kim SK (2012) Biological activities and potential health benefits of bioactive peptides derived from marine organisms. Int J Biol Macromol 51:378–383CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Cheung RC, Ng TB, Wong JH (2015) Marine peptides: bioactivities and applications. Mar Drugs 13:4006–4043CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Cheung S-H, Kim E-K, Hwang J-W, Kim Y-S, Lee JS et al (2013) Purification of a novel peptide derived from a shellfish Crassostrea gigas and evaluation of its anticancer property. J Agric Food Chem 61:11442–11446CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Mathew M (2015) Fish oils: production and quality aspects. In: Sachindra MM, Mahendrakar MS (eds) Fish processing by-products: quality assessment applications. Studium Press, Houston, pp 77–106Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Nichols PD, Bakes MJ, Elliott NJ (1998) Oils rich in docosahexaenoic acid in livers of sharks from temperate Australian waters. Mar Freshw Res 49:763–766CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Bimbo AP (2007) Current and future sources of raw materials for the long-chain omega-3 fatty acid market. Lipid Technol 19:176–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Elavarasan K, Shamsundar BA (2015) Utilization of surimi processing discards for value added products. In: Sachindra MM, Mahendrakar MS (eds) Fish processing by-products: quality assessment and applications. Studium Press, Houston, pp 237–272Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Okada T, Morrissey MT (2007) Recovery and characterization of sardine oil extracted by pH adjustment. J Agri Food Chem 55:1808–1813CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Liaset B, Julshamn K, Eape M (2003) Chemical composition and theoretical nutrition of the processed fractions from enzyme hydrolysis of salmon with Protamex™. Process Biochem 38:1747–1759CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Rodriguez N, Diego SD, Beltran S, Jaime I, Sanz MT, Rovira J (2012) Supercritical fluid extraction of fish oil from fish by-products. A comparison with other extraction methods. J Food Eng 100:238–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Pike IH, Jackson A (2010) Fish oil: production and use now and in the future. Lipid Technol 22:59–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Venugopal V, Kumaran AK, Sekhar Chatterjee N, Kumar S, Kavilakath S, Nair JR, Mathew S (2016) Biochemical characterization of liver oil of Echinorhinus brucus (bramble shark) and its cytotoxic evaluation on neuroblastoma cell lines (SHSY-5Y). Scientifica (Cairo).
  124. 124.
    Bunea R, El Farrah K, Deutsch L (2004) Evaluation of the effects of Neptune krill oil on the clinical course of hyperlipidemia. Altern Med Rev 9:420Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    Apostolidis E, Karayannakidis PD, Lee CM (2016) Recovery of bioactive peptides and omega-3 fatty acids-containing phospholipids from squid processing by-product hydrolyzate. J Aquat Food Product Technol 25:496–506CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Bowen KJ, Harris WS, Kris-Etherton PM (2016) Omega-3 fatty acids and cardiovascular disease: are there benefits? Curr Treat Options Cardi Med 18:69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Gobbo LC, Imamura F, Aslibekyan S, Marklund M, Virtanen JK, Wennberg M et al (2016) ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid biomarkers coronary heart disease: pooling project of 19 cohort studies. JAMA 176(8):1155–1166Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    Lavie CL, Milani RV, Mehra MR, Ventura HO (2009) Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and cardiovascular diseases. J Am Coll Cardiol 54:585–594. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Mozaffarrian D, Rimm EB (2006) Fish intake, contaminants and human health: evaluating the risks and benefits. JAMA 296:1885–1899CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Scorletti E, Byrne CD (2013) Omega-3 fatty acids, hepatic lipid metabolism and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Ann Rev Nutr 33:231–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Romeo J, Warnberg J, Garcia-Marmol E et al (2011) Daily consumption of milk enriched with fish oil, oleic acid, minerals and vitamins reduces cell adhesion molecules in healthy children. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 21:113–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Gogus U, Smith C (2010) n-3 omega fatty acids: a review of current knowledge. Int J Food Sci Technol 45:417–436CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Bao B, Prasad AS, Beck FW et al (2010) Zinc decreases C-reactive protein, lipid peroxidation, inflammatory cytokines in elderly subjects: a potential implication of zinc as an atheroprotective agent. The Am J Clin Nutr 91:1634–1641CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Kim SK, Karadeniz F (2012) Biological importance and applications of squalene and squalane. Adv Food Nutr Res 65:223–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Fu Y, Li G, Zhang X, Xing G, Hu X, Yang L, Li D (2015) Lipid extract from hard-shelled mussel (Mytilus coruscus) improves clinical conditions of patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a randomized controlled trial. Forum Nutr 7:625–645Google Scholar
  136. 136.
    Emelyanov A, Fedoseev G, Krasnoschekova O, Abulimity A, Trendeleva T, Barnes PJ (2002) Treatment of asthma with lipid extract of new zeal green-lipped mussel: a romized clinical trial. The Eur Resp J 20:596–600CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Grienke U, Silke J, Tasdemir D (2014) Bioactive compounds from marine mussels and their effects on human health. Food Chem 142:48–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Sachindra NM, Bhaskar N, Mahendrakar NS (2005) Carotenoids in different body components of Indian shrimps. J Sci Food Agric 85:167–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Li N, Hu J, Wang S, Cheng J, Hu X et al (2010) Isolation identification of the main carotenoid pigment from the rare orange muscle of the Yesso scallop. Food Chem 118:616–619CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Venugopal V (2011) Chapter 11, Biomedical applications of marine polysaccharides: an overview. In: Marine polysaccharides: Food applications. CRC Press, Boca RatonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    d’Ayala GG, Malinconico M, Laurienzo P (2008) Marine derived polysaccharides for biomedical applications: chemical modification approaches. Molecules 13:2069–2106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Tharanathan RN, Kittur FS (2003) Chitin – the undisputed biomolecule of great potential. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 43:61–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Hayes M, Carney B, Slater J, Brück W (2008) Mining marine shellfish discards for bioactive molecules: chitin chitosan – Part A: extraction methods. Biotechnol J 3:871–877CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Cahu TB, Santos SD, Mendes A, Cordula CR et al (2012) Recovery of protein, chitin, carotenoids glycosaminoglycans from Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) processing discard. Process Biochem 47:570–577CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    No HK, Meyers SP, Prinyawiwatkul W, Xu Z (2007) Applications of chitosan for improvement of quality and shelf life of foods. J. Food Sci 72:R87–R100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Mourya VK, Inamdar NN (2008) Chitosan-modifications and applications: opportunities galore. React Funct Polym 68:1013–1051CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Muxika A, Etxabide A, Uranga J, Guerrero P, de la Caba K (2017) Chitosan as a bioactive polymer: Processing, properties and applications. Int J Biol Macromol 105:1358–1368. pii: S0141-8130(17)3175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Prashanth KVH, Tharanathan RN (2007) Chitin/chitosan: modifications and their unlimited application potential – an overview. Trends Food Sci Technol 18:117–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Shahidi F, Abuzaytoon R (2005) Chitin, chitosan and co-products: chemistry, production, applications and health effects. Adv Food Nutr Res 49:93–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Kurita K (2006) Chitin and chitosan: functional biopolymers from marine crustaceans. Mar Biotechnol 8:203–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Muzzarelli RAA (2009) Chitins and chitosans for the repair of wounded skin, nerve, cartilage and bone. Carbohydr Polym 76:167–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Morganti P, Palombo M, Palombo P, Dziergowski S (2010) Cosmetic science in skin aging: achieving the efficacy by the chitin nano-structured crystallites. SOFW-J 136:14–24Google Scholar
  153. 153.
    Ahsan SM, Thomas M, Reddy KK, Sooraparaju SG, Asthana A, Bhatnagar I (2017) Chitosan as biomaterial in drug delivery tissue engineering. Int J Biol Macromol. pii: S0141-8130(17)31884-6
  154. 154.
    Lordan S, Ross PR, Stanton C (2011) Marine bioactives as functional food ingredients: potential to reduce the incidence of chronic diseases. Mar Drugs 9:1056–1100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Venkatesan J, Kim SK (2014) Chitosan for bone repair and regeneration. In: Mallick K (ed) Bone substitute materials. Woodhead Publishing, London, pp 244–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Belorkar SA, Gupta AK (2016) Oligosaccharides: a boon from nature’s desk. AMB Expr 6(82):1–11Google Scholar
  157. 157.
    Garnjanagoonchorn W, Wongekalak L, Engkagul A (2007) Determination of chondroitin sulfate from different sources of cartilage. Chem Eng Process 46:465–471CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Vázquez JA, Rodríguez-Amado I, Montemayor MI et al (2013) Chondroitin sulfate, hyaluronic acid chitin/chitosan production using marine discard sources: characteristics, applications and eco-friendly processes: a review. Mar Drugs 11:747–777CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Jo JH, Park DC, Do J-R, Kim Y-M, Kim D-S, Park Y-K, Lee T-K, Lee CS-M (2004) Optimization of skate (Raja avirostris) cartilage hydrolysis for the preparation of chondroitin sulfate. Food Sci Biotechnol 13:622–626Google Scholar
  160. 160.
    Lignot B, Lahogue V, Bourseau P (2003) Enzymatic extraction of chondroitin sulfate from skate cartilage and concentration-desalting by ultrafiltration. J Biotechnol 103:281–284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Sim J-S, Im A-R, Cho SM, Jang HJ, Jo HJ, Kim YS (2007) Evaluation of chondroitin sulfate in shark cartilage powder as a dietary supplement: raw materials finished products. Food Chem 101:532–539CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Suleria HAR, Masci PP, Gobe GC, Osborne SA (2017) Therapeutic potential of abalone and status of bioactive molecules: a comprehensive review. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutri 57:1742–1748CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Liao N, Chen S, Ye X, Zhong J, Ye X, Yin X, Tian J, Liu D (2014) Structural characterization of a novel glucan from Achatina fulica its antioxidant activity. J Agri Food Chem 62:2344–2352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Shun-gan X (1996) Calcium powder of freshwater fish bone. J Shanghai Fish Univ 5:246–249Google Scholar
  165. 165.
    Sultanbawa Y, Aksnes A (2006) Tuna process discard – an unexploited resource. Infofish International, March issue, pp 37–40
  166. 166.
    Chrasekharan M (2015) Biotechnology for utilization of marine byproducts. In: Sachindra MM, Mahendrakar MS (eds) Fish processing by-products: quality assessment and applications. Studium Press, Houston, pp 43–76Google Scholar
  167. 167.
    Ren X, Ma L, Wang Y-H, Zhuang YP et al (2012) Optimization of enzymatic hydrolysis of channel catfish bones for preparing antimicrobial agents. J Aquatic Food Prod Technol 21:99–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Jung WK, Park P, ByunH MS-H, Kim S-K (2005) Preparation of hoki (Johnius belengerii) bone oligophosphopeptide with a high affinity to calcium by carnivorous intestine crude proteinase. Food Chem 91:333–340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Balano A (2014) Recovery of biomolecules from food discards – a review. Molecules 17:14821–14842Google Scholar
  170. 170.
    Kiuru P, DʼAuria MV, Christian D, Muller CD et al (2014) Exploring marine resources for bioactive compounds. Planta Med 80:1234–1246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Freitas AC, Rodrigues D, Rocha-Santos TAP, Gomes AMP, Duarte AC (2012) Marine biotechnology advances towards applications in new functional foods. Biotechnol Adv 30:1562–1574CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Rasmussen RS, Morrissey MT (2007) Marine biotechnology for production of food ingredients. Adv Food Nutr Res 52:237–292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Muffler K, Ulber R (2005) Down-stream processing in marine biotechnology. Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol 97:63–103Google Scholar
  174. 174.
    Gil-Chavez GJ, Villa JA, Ayala-Zavala FJ, Heredia JB et al (2013) Technologies for extraction and production of bioactive compounds to be used as nutraceuticals and food ingredients: an overview. Comp Rev Food Sci Food Safety 12:5–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Kim SK, Senevirathne M (2011) Membrane bioreactor technology for the development of functional materials from sea-food processing discards and their potential health benefits. Membranes 1:327–344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Ferdosh S, Sarker Md ZI, Ab Rahman NIM, Akanda Md JH et al (2016) Simultaneous extraction and fractionation of fish oil from tuna by-product using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2). J Aquatic Food Prod Technol 25:230–239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Vázquez J, Patrícia Ramos R, Mirón J et al (2017) Production of chitin from Penaeus vannamei by-products to pilot plant scale using a combination of enzymatic chemical processes and subsequent optimization of the chemical production of chitosan by response surface methodology. Mar Drugs 15(6):180. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Rangel M, Falkenberg M (2015) An overview of the marine natural products in clinical trials on the market. J Coastal Life Med 3(6):421–428Google Scholar
  179. 179.
    Lafarga T, Hayes M (2017) Bioactive protein hydrolyzates in the functional food ingredient industry: overcoming current challenges. Food Rev Int 33:217–246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    GOED (2017) Organization of EPA and DHA Omega-3s. Available from: Accessed 12 Jan 2017
  181. 181.
    Salem N Jr, Eggersdorfer M (2015) Is the world supply of omega-3 fatty acids adequate for optimal human nutrition? Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 18:147–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Garg ML, Wood LG, Singh H, Moughan PJ (2006) Means of delivery recommended levels of long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in human diets. J Food Sci 71:R66–R71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Ohshima T (2002) Marine nutraceuticals and functional foods in Japan. In: Alasalvar C, Taylor T (eds) Seafoods: quality, technology and nutraceutical applications. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, pp 205–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Borresen T (2016) Fish lipids and peptides in nutrition. J Aquatic Food Prod Technol 25:1171CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • V. Venugopal
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Former Scientific Officer Food Technology DivisionBhabha Atomic Research CenterMumbaiIndia
  2. 2.Visiting faculty, Department of Food Science and TechnologyKerala University of Fisheries and Ocean Sciences (KUFOS)KochiIndia

Personalised recommendations