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Nanofiber Electrodes for Biosensors

  • Subhash Singh
Reference work entry

Abstract

Nanoscience and nanotechnology impact our lives in many ways, and the production of engineered nanofibers represents a scientific breakthrough in material design and the development of new consumer products from electronics, aerospace, automobile, photonic devices, and biosensors to renewable energy materials that are expected to impact almost every industrial and manufacturing sector, including biomedicine and biotechnology (vascular, neural, bone, cartilage, and tendon/ligament tissue engineering) and electrochemical energy storage because of their excellent conductivities, extremely large surface areas, and structural stability. Among the reported functionalities, nanofiber electrodes are popularly used as biosensors and have been extensively investigated due to their importance in solving the challenges in bioanalytical problems including clinical application, health care, chemical and biological analysis, environmental monitoring, and food processing industries. Graphene, graphene oxide, chemically reduced graphene oxide, carbon nanotubes (CNTs), diamond, carbon nanofibers (CNFs), ZnO nanofibers, conductive polymers (like polypyrrole, polyaniline, polythiophene nanofibers), Pt–Au nanoparticle-decorated titania nanotube array, boron-doped diamond nanorods, and gold nanofiber electrodes are some of the biosensing materials used for DNA biosensor, glucose biosensor, electrochemical biosensors, or electrocatalytic biosensor, respectively. Carbon-based materials such as diamond and carbon nanofibers are highly important for the construction of practical nanoscale sensing devices and systems because of high degree of chemical stability, their relatively wide potential windows in aqueous media, good biocompatibility, low cost, and relative chemical inertness in most electrolyte solutions. Innovation and research in the field of nanofibers is paving way for a new era in biosensing application.

Keywords

Nanofiber electrodes Carbon nanofiber Carbon nanotubes Graphene Glucose Dopamine Proteins Uric acid Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) Ribonucleic acid (RNA) Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2Biosensor 

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Subhash Singh
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Research and Development, Mechanical Engineering DepartmentLovely Professional UniversityPhagwaraIndia

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