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Hemorrhoids pp 35-45 | Cite as

Clinical Assessment of Hemorrhoids

  • Carlo Ratto
  • Angelo Parello
  • Francesco Litta
  • Veronica De Simone
  • Ugo Grossi
Reference work entry
Part of the Coloproctology book series (COLOPROCT, volume 2)

Abstract

An accurate clinical assessment is fundamental in patients affected by hemorrhoidal disease. It is based on the evaluation of patient’s history (concerning characteristics of bowel movements and other concomitant diseases), symptoms (including bleeding and prolapse, pain/discomfort, mucorrhea, pruritus, etc.), and physical examination. Instrumental examination should provide anoscopy and, when necessary or indicated, more extended endoscopy.

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Carlo Ratto
    • 1
  • Angelo Parello
    • 1
  • Francesco Litta
    • 1
  • Veronica De Simone
    • 1
  • Ugo Grossi
    • 1
  1. 1.Proctology UnitUniversity Hospital “A. Gemelli”, Catholic UniversityRomeItaly

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