Encyclopedia of Wildfires and Wildland-Urban Interface (WUI) Fires

Living Edition
| Editors: Samuel L. Manzello

Ignition-Resistant Communities

  • Michael J. GollnerEmail author
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-51727-8_227-1

synonyms

Definition

Wildland fires that spread into communities, known as wildland-urban interface (WUI) fires, have resulted in significant destruction to the built environment. The concept of ignition-resistant communities is intended to minimize these WUI fire losses using measures designed to limit the probability of ignition of structures and overall spread of a fire within communities.

Introduction

The wildland-urban interface (WUI) is often defined as the area where wildland vegetation meets or mixes with humans and their development, including houses and infrastructure (Johnston et al. 2019). Numerous wildland fires that spread into communities, known as WUI fires, have resulted in significant loss of life and property over the past several decades (Caton et al. 2017). While the term “wildland-urban interface” can create the perception that the WUI fire problem is determined by geographic location, the problem can also be envisioned as a...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Alexandre PM, Stewart SI, Keuler NS et al (2016) Factors related to building loss due to wildfires in the conterminous United States. Ecol Appl 26.  https://doi.org/10.1002/eap.1376CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Caton SE, Hakes RSP, Gorham DJ et al (2017) Review of pathways for building fire spread in the wildland urban Interface part I: exposure conditions. Fire Technol 53:429–473.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10694-016-0589-zCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Cohen JD (2000) Preventing disaster: home ignitability in the wildland-urban Interface. J For 98:15–21. http://www.fs.fed.us/rm/pubs_other/rmrs_2000_cohen_j002.pdfGoogle Scholar
  4. Cohen J (2004) Relating flame radiation to home ignition using modeling and experimental crown fires. Can J For Res 34:1616–1626.  https://doi.org/10.1139/X04-049CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Hakes RSP, Caton SE, Gorham DJ, Gollner MJ (2017) A review of pathways for building fire spread in the wildland urban Interface part II: response of components and systems and mitigation strategies in the United States. Fire Technol 53:475–515.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10694-016-0601-7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Johnston L, Blanchi R, Jappiot M (2019) Wildland-urban interface. Encycl. Wildfires Wildland-Urban Interface FiresGoogle Scholar
  7. Manzello SL, Suzuki S, Hayashi Y (2012) Enabling the study of structure vulnerabilities to ignition from wind driven firebrand showers: a summary of experimental results. Fire Saf J 54:181–196.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.firesaf.2012.06.012CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Maranghides A, Mell W (2011) A case study of a community affected by the Witch and Guejito wildland fires. Fire Technol.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10694-010-0164-yCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Maranghides A, McNamara D, Mell W et al (2013) A case study of a community affected by the Witch and Guejito fires: report #2 – evaluating the effects of hazard mitigation actions on structure ignitions. Gaithersburg, MDGoogle Scholar
  10. Maranghides A, Mcnamara D, Vihnanek R et al (2015) A case study of a community affected by the Waldo Fire – event timeline and defensive actions.  https://doi.org/10.6028/NIST.TN.1910
  11. Mell W, Maranghides M (2009) NIST Technical Note 1635: a case study of a community affected by the Witch and Guejito FiresGoogle Scholar
  12. Ronchi E, Gwynne SMV, Rein G et al (2019) An open multi-physics framework for modelling wildland-urban interface fire evacuations. Saf Sci 118:868–880.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2019.06.009CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Syphard AD, Keeley JE, Massada AB et al (2012) Housing arrangement and location determine the likelihood of housing loss due to wildfire. PLoS One 7(3):e33954.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0033954CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Fire Protection EngineeringUniversity of MarylandCollege ParkUSA

Section editors and affiliations

  • Michael Gollner
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Fire Protection EngineeringUniversity of MarylandCollege ParkUSA