Polar Expeditions (South) in Archaeology

  • Maria Ximena Senatore
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-51726-1_2873-1

Introduction

The extreme isolation, hostile environment, and the lack of human native population were factors that contributed to the understanding of Antarctica as a distant, inaccessible space empty of people and things. However, since its discovery in the early nineteenth century, expeditions were sent from different continents aimed at geographical exploration as well as commercial exploitation of its maritime resources. Archaeological sites on the continent and its surrounding islands are relatively recent and widely scattered and often relate to a single purpose use at a single point in time. They represent the remains of the limited range of human activities developed in Antarctica such as exploration, sealing, whaling, and scientific research. The conservation of historic sites, such as building, shipwrecks, and artifacts of the polar expeditions were a matter of concern since the signature of the Antarctic Treaty in 1959. Archaeology began in the late 1970s with a focus on the...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Avango, D. 2016. Acting artefacts: On the meaning of material culture in Antarctica. In Antarctica and the humanities, ed. P. Robert, A. Howkings, and L.-M. van der Watt. London: Palgrave, Macmillan.Google Scholar
  2. Cartajena, I., and R.E. Labarca. 2007. Patrones históricos de cuereo en lobos marinos: la evidencia de los abrigos 1 y 2 de playa Yámana (Isla Livingston, Antártica chilena). Magallania 35 (1): 95–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Comerci, S. 1983. Arqueología Antártica. Los trabajos del la República Argentina en la Isla Cerro Nevado durante las campañas antárticas 1979–1980 y 1980–1981, Contribución 291. Buenos Aires: Dirección Nacional del Antártico, Instituto Antártico Argentino.Google Scholar
  4. Evans, S.L. 2011. Icy heritage: Managing historic sites in the Antarctic. Pristine wilderness, anthropogenic degradation or cultural landscape. The Polar Journal 1 (1): 87–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Hacquebord, D.L. 1992. Hector station on deception island (South Shetland Islands, Antarctica). An environmental assessment study of a whaling station. Circumpolar Journal 7 (1–2): 72–97.Google Scholar
  6. Harrowfield, D.L. 1992. Archaeology of Borchgrevink’s stores hut, Cape Adare Antarctica. New Zealand Journal of Archaeology 13: 177–197.Google Scholar
  7. Henderson, C. 2010. The search of the Mawson’s air tractor. Australian Antarctic Magazine 18: 30–32.Google Scholar
  8. Ledinghan, R.B. 1979. Expedition to renovate the 1912–2013 Australian Antarctic expedition base hut. Polar Record 19 (122): 485–492.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Lewis Smith, R.I., and H.W. Simpson. 1987. Early nineteenth century sealers’ refuges on Livingston Island, South Shetland Islands. British Antarctic Survey Bulletin 74: 49–72.Google Scholar
  10. McGowan, A. 1987. Archaeology from the ice: Excavations methods in frozen hut. Australian Historical Archaeology 5: 49–53.Google Scholar
  11. Moreno, P. 2000. Botellas de la peninsula Byers, I. Livingston, Shetland del Sur, Actas del Congreso Argentino de Americanistas, 207–228. Buenos Aires: Liga Naval.Google Scholar
  12. Pearson, M. 2004. Artefacts or rubbish. A dilemma for Antarctic managers. In Cultural heritage in Antarctic and Antarctic Regions, eds. S. Barr and P. Chaplin, 39–43. Norway: IPHC-ICOMOS.Google Scholar
  13. Pearson, M. 2011. Polar heritage conservation and archaeology. In Polar settlements – location, techniques and conservation, ed. S. Barr and P. Chaplin, 24–34. Norway: IPHC-ICOMOS.Google Scholar
  14. Pearson, M., and R. Stehberg. 2006. Nineteenth century sealing sites on Rugged Island, South Shetland Islands. Polar Record 42: 1–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Pearson, M., R. Stehberg, A. Zarankin, M.X. Senatore, and C. Gatica. 2010. Conserving the oldest historic sites in the Antarctic: The challenges in managing the sealing sites in the South Shetland Islands. Polar Record 46 (1): 57–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Roura, R. 2008. Antarctic research stations: Environmental and cultural heritage perspectives 1983–2008. In Historical polar bases preservation and management, Historical Polar Bases Preservation and Management, Monuments and Sites XIV Special Issue, ed. S. Bar and P. Chaplin, 38–50. Lorenskog: IPHC- ICOMOS.Google Scholar
  17. Senatore, M.X. 2018. Antarctic historical sealing industry and material things. In Historical Antarctic sealing industry, Scott Polar Research Institute, Occasional Publication, ed. R. Headland, 61–71. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University.Google Scholar
  18. Senatore, M.X., and A. Zarankin. 2011. Widening the scope of the Antarctic heritage archaeology and the ugly, the dirty and the evil in Antarctic history. In Polar settlements – location, techniques and conservation, ed. S. Barr and P. Chaplin, 51–59. Norway: IPHC-ICOMOS.Google Scholar
  19. Stehberg, R.L. 2003. Arqueología Histórica Antártica: Aborıgenes sudamericanos en los mares subantárticos en el siglo XIX. Chile: Centro de Investigaciones Diego Barros Arana.Google Scholar
  20. Stehberg, R., M. Pearson, R. Blanchette, and J.A. Jurgens. 2009. A further note on a sealer’s sledge, discovered on Livingston Island, South Shetland Islands. Polar Record 45 (3): 275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Villagran, X.S., and Carlos E.G.R. Schaefer. 2011. Geoarqueologia das primeiras ocupaçones na Antártida. Vestigios, Revista Latinoamericana de Arqueologia Histórica 5 (2): 115–136.Google Scholar
  22. Zarankin, A., and M. Salerno. 2016. In So far, so close. Approaching experience in the study of the encounter between sealers and the South Shetland Islands (Antarctica, nineteenth century), Antarctica and the humanities, ed. P. Roberts, L.M. van der Watt, and A. Howkins, 79–104. London: Palmgrave Macmillian.Google Scholar
  23. Zarankin, A., and M.X. Senatore. 2005. Archaeology in Antarctica: Nineteenth-century capitalism expansion strategies. International Journal of Historical Archaeology 9: 43–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Zarankin, A., S. Hissa, M. Salerno, Y. Froner, G. Radicchi, L.G. Resende de Assis, and A. Batista. 2011. Paisagens em branco: Arqueologia e Antropologia Antárticas Avanços e desafios. Vestigios, Revista Latinoamericana de Arqueologia Histórica 5 (2): 11–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Further Readings

  1. Avango, D. 2017. Remains of industry in the polar regions: Histories, processes, heritage. Entreprises et Histoire 87: 133–149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Harrowfield, D.L. 2005. Archaeology in Antarctica. New Zealand Journal of Archaeology 26: 5–28.Google Scholar
  3. Headland, R. 1989. Chronological list of Antarctic expeditions and related historical events. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press Studies in Polar Research.Google Scholar
  4. Lucero, V., and R. Stehberg. 1996. Arqueología Histórica Antártica: relevamiento y excavación de sitios de cazadores de lobos del siglo pasado. Islas Shetland del Sur. Historical Archaeology in Latin America 14: 99–106.Google Scholar
  5. Muñoz, A.S. 2000. Arqueofaunas de la isla Livingston, Shetland del Sur. Un estudio exploratorio de los restos de mamíferos recuperados en la península Byers. Archaeofauna 9: 39–57.Google Scholar
  6. Oliva, M., J. Ruiz-Fernández, A. Zarankin, A. Casanova-Katny, and J. Nofre. 2016. Geoecology and historical heritage in the ice-free area of elephant point (Antarctica). Proposal for future environmental protection. Geoheritage.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12371-016-0184-1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Pearson, M., R. Stehberg, A. Zarankin, M.X. Senatore, and C. Gatica. 2008. ‘Sealer’s sledge excavated on Livingston Island, South Shetland Islands. Polar Record 44: 362–364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Roura, R. 2017. Antarctic cultural heritage: Geopolitics and management. In Handbook on the politics of Antarctica, ed. K. Dodds, A.D. Hemmings, and P. Roberts, 468–484. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing Ltd Elgaronline.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Senatore, M.X., and A. Zarankin. 1999. Arqueologıa histórica y expansión capitalista. Prácticas cotidianas y grupos operarios en Peninsula Byers, Isla Livingston de Islas Shetland del Sur. In Sed Non Satiata. Teoría Social en la Arqueología Latinoamericana Contemporánea, ed. A. Zarankin and F. Acuto, 171–188. Buenos Aires: Ediciones del Tridente.Google Scholar
  10. Senatore, M.X., and A. Zarankin. 2012. Tourism and the invisible historic sites in Antarctica. Heritage as a driver to development, part III development as tourism, 592–601. Paris: ICOMOS.Google Scholar
  11. Senatore, M.X., and A. Zarankin. 2014. Against the domain of master narratives: Archaeology and history in Antarctica. In Against the typological tyranny in archaeology: A view from South America, ed. C. Gnecco and C. Langebaek, 121–132. New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Senatore, M.X., A. Zarankin, M. Salerno, I.V. Valladares, and M.J. Cruz. 2008. Historias bajo cero. Arqueología de las primeras ocupaciones humanas en Antártida. In Arqueología del Extremo Sur de Sudamérica, ed. L. Borrero and N. Franco, 117–130. Buenos Aires: DIPA-IMHICIHU-CONICET.Google Scholar
  13. Stehberg, R., and A. Cabeza. 1987. Comienzos de la Arqueología Histórica Antártica en el Sitio Cuatro Pircas. Revista Chilena de Antropología 6: 83–111.Google Scholar
  14. Stehberg, R., and V. Lucero. 1996. Excavaciones arqueológicas en Playa Yámana, Cabo Shirreff, Isla Livingston, Antártica. Serie Científica Instituto Antártico Chileno 46: 59–81.Google Scholar
  15. Stehberg, R., M. Pearson, A. Zarankin, M.X. Senatore, and C. Gatica. 2008. Protection and preservation of the oldest sites of the Antarctic: The case of Fildes Peninsula and Byers Peninsula in the South Shetlands Islands. In Historical polar bases preservation and management, monuments and sites XIV special issue, ed. S. Bar and P. Chaplin, 80–94. Lorenskog: IPHC- ICOMOS.Google Scholar
  16. Stehberg, R., M. Pearson, R. Blanchette, and J.A. Jurgens. 2009. A further note on a sealer’s sledge, discovered on Livingston Island, South Shetland Islands. Polar Record 45(3): 275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Zarankin, A., and M.X. Senatore. 2007. Historias de un pasado en blanco: Arqueología Histórica Antártica. Belo Horizonte: Argumentum.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.CONICET- INAPL and Universidad Nacional de la Patagonia AustralBuenos AiresArgentina

Section editors and affiliations

  • Vivian Scheinsohn
    • 1
  1. 1.Instituto Nacional de Antropología y Pensamiento Latinoamericano-CONICET / Universidad de Buenos AiresBuenos AiresArgentina