Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology

Living Edition
| Editors: Claire Smith (Editor-in-Chief)

Monumental Architecture in Precontact Polynesia

Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-51726-1_2713-1

State of Knowledge and Current Debates

The islands of the Eastern Polynesian triangle, bounded by the Hawaiian Archipelago, New Zealand (Aotearoa), and Easter Island (Rapa Nui) and those of Western Polynesia, which includes Tonga and Samoa, were home to diverse indigenous societies. Such groups were organized as chiefdoms and archaic states prior to European contact (Kirch 2017). As with other complex societies worldwide, the power and authority of Polynesian chiefs were materialized in diverse ways, often through the construction of monumental architecture. Before launching into a discussion of historical trends and current research on Polynesian monumental structures, we must first ask: What constitutes monumental architecture in Polynesia?

Historical linguistics document a long history of shared Polynesian terms related to ritual structures, some of which become elaborated as monumental sites in later prehistory. The Proto-Polynesian word ∗malaqeis robustly reconstructed from 25...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. Allen, M.S. 2010. Oscillating climate and socio-political process: The case of the Marquesan chiefdom, Polynesia. Antiquity 849 (323): 86–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Allen, M.W. 2016. Food, fighting, and fortifications in pre-European New Zealand: Beyond the ecological model of Maori warfare. In The archaeology of food and warfare, ed. A.M. VanDerwarker, G.D. Wilson, and D. Gregory, 41–59. New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Anderson, A. 2018. The prehistory of South Polynesia. In Oxford handbook of oceanic archaeology, ed. E. Cochrane and T. Hunt, 396–415. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  4. Anderson, A., and D.J. Kennett, eds. 2012. Taking the high ground: The archaeology of Rapa, a fortified Island in remote East Polynesia. Vol. 37. Canberra: ANU E Press.Google Scholar
  5. Barber, I.G. 1996. Loss, change, and monumental landscaping: Towards a new interpretation of the “Classic” Maaori emergence. Current Anthropology 37 (5): 868–880.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bennett, W.C. 1931. Archaeology of Kauai. Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 80. Honolulu.Google Scholar
  7. Best, S. 1993. At the halls of the mountain kings. Fijian and Samoan fortifications: Comparison and analysis. The Journal of the Polynesian Society 102 (4): 385–447.Google Scholar
  8. Burley, D. 1994. Settlement pattern and Tongan prehistory: Reconsiderations from Haʻapai. Journal of the Polynesian Society 103 (4): 379–411.Google Scholar
  9. Burley, D. 1996. Sport, status, and field monuments in the Polynesian chiefdom of Tonga: The pigeon snaring mounds of northern Haʻapai. Journal of Field Archaeology 23 (4): 421–435.Google Scholar
  10. Burley, D. 1998. Tongan archaeology and the Tongan past, 2850–150 B.P. Journal of World Prehistory 12 (3): 337–392.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Burley, D.V., and D. Addison. 2018. Tonga and Samoa in oceanic prehistory: Contemporary debates and personal perspectives. In Oxford handbook of oceanic archaeology, ed. E. Cochrane and T. Hunt, 231–251. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  12. Campbell, M. 2002. Ritual landscape in late pre-contact Rarotonga: A brief reading. Journal of the Polynesian Society 111 (2): 147–170.Google Scholar
  13. Campbell, M. 2006. Memory and monumentality in the Rarotongan landscape. Antiquity 80 (307): 102–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Clark, G. 2015. Chiefly tombs, lineage history, and the ancient Tongan state. Journal of Island and Coastal Archaeology 11 (3): 1–18.Google Scholar
  15. Clark, J.T., and D.J. Herdrich. 1993. Prehistoric settlement system in eastern Tutuila, American Samoa. The Journal of the Polynesian Society 102 (2): 147–185.Google Scholar
  16. Clark, G., and H. Martinsson-Wallin. 2007. Monumental architecture in West Polynesia: Origins, chiefs and archaeological approaches. Archaeology in Oceania 42 (Supplement): 28–40.Google Scholar
  17. Clark, G., and C. Reepmeyer. 2014. Stone architecture, monumentality and the rise of the early Tongan chiefdom. Antiquity 88 (342): 1244–1260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Clark, G., D. Burley, and T. Murray. 2008. Monumentality and the development of the Tongan maritime chiefdom. Antiquity 82 (318): 994–1008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Clark, G., C. Reepmeyer, N. Melekiola, J. Woodhead, W.R. Dickinson, and H. Martinsson-Wallin. 2014. Stone tools from the ancient Tongan state reveal prehistoric interaction centers in the Central Pacific. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 111 (29): 10491–10496.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Clark, G., C. Reepmeyer, and N. Melekiola. 2016. The rapid emergence of the archaic Tongan state: The royal tomb of Paepaeotelea. Antiquity 90 (352): 1038–1053.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Cochrane, E.E. 1998. The chronological and spatial relationships of ceremonial architecture: Seriation of marae. Rapa Nui Journal 12: 3–9.Google Scholar
  22. Cochrane, E.E. 2002. Separating time and space in archaeological landscapes: An example from windward Society Islands ceremonial architecture. In Pacific landscapes: Archaeological approaches, ed. T.N. Ladefoged and M.W. Graves, 189–209. Los Osos: Easter Island Foundation Press.Google Scholar
  23. Cochrane, E.E. 2015. Phylogenetic analysis of Polynesian ritual architecture suggests extensive cultural sharing and innovation. The Journal of the Polynesian Society 124 (1): 7–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Cochrane, E., and J. Mills. 2018. LiDAR imagery confirms extensive interior land-use on Tutuila, American Sāmoa. Journal of Pacific Archaeology 9 (1): 70–78.Google Scholar
  25. Conte, E., and K.J. Dennison. 2009. Te Tahata: Etude d’une marae de Topoto (Nord); Archipel des Tuamotu, Polynésie française. Punnauia, Les Cahiers du CIRAP 1.Google Scholar
  26. Cordy, R.H. 2000. Exalted sits the chief: the ancient history of Hawai’i Island. Honolulu: Mutual Publishing.Google Scholar
  27. Davidson, J. 1974. Samoan structural remains and settlement patterns. In Archaeology in Western Samoa, Bulletin 7, ed. R.C. Green and J.M. Davidson, vol. II. Auckland: Auckland Institute and Museum.Google Scholar
  28. DeMarrais, Elizabeth, Luis Jaime Castillo, and Timothy Earle. 1996. Ideology, materialization, and power strategies. Current Anthropology 37 (1): 15–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. DiNapoli, R.J., C.P. Lipo, T. Brosnan, T.L. Hunt, S. Hixon, A.E. Morrison, and M. Becker. 2019. Rapa Nui (Easter Island) monument (ahu) locations explained by freshwater sources. PLoS One 14 (1): e0210409.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Dixon, B., A. Carpenter, F. Eble, C. Mitchell, and M. Major. 1995. Community growth and Heiau construction: Possible evidence of political hegemony at the site of Kaunolū, Lāna’i, Hawai’i. Asian Perspectives 34 (2): 229–255.Google Scholar
  31. Downes, J., C. Richards, L. Shaw, and F. Torres. 2017. Survey and assessment of the Ara Metua (Ara Nui o Toi) and associated sites and monuments of Rarotonga, Cook Islands. Unpublished report accessed online https://www.uhi.ac.uk/en/t4-media/one-web/university/archaeology-institute/Survey-of-Ara-Metua-Raratonga-report%2D%2D-final.pdf.
  32. Earle, T. 1991. Chiefdoms: Power, economy and ideology. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  33. Edwards, E., and J.A. Belmonte. 2004. Megalithic astronomy of Eastern Island: A reassessment. Journal for the History of Astronomy 35: 421–433.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Emory, K.P. 1924. The island of Lanai. Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 116. Honolulu.Google Scholar
  35. Emory, K.P. 1928. Archaeology of Nihoa and Necker islands. Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 9. Honolulu.Google Scholar
  36. Emory, K.P. 1933. Stone remains in the Society Islands. Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 116. Honolulu.Google Scholar
  37. Emory, K.P. 1934. Archaeology of the Pacific equatorial islands. Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 123. Honolulu.Google Scholar
  38. Flexner, J. 2014. Some thoughts on the past and future of archaeological mapping in Polynesia. Blog post, Then Dig. UC Berkeley: Archaeological Research Facility. Retrieved from https://escholarship.org/uc/item/2p0598q3.
  39. Freeland, T., B. Heung, D.V. Burley, G. Clark, and A. Knudby. 2016. Automated feature extraction for prospection and analysis of monumental earthworks from aerial LiDAR in the Kingdom of Tonga. Journal of Archaeological Science 69: 64–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Graves, M.W., and C.K. Cachola-Abad. 1996. Seriation as a method of chronologically ordering architectural design traits: An example from Hawaiʻi. Archaeology in Oceania 31 (1): 19–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Graves, M.W., and T.N. Ladefoged. 1995. The evolutionary significance of ceremonial architecture in Polynesia. In Evolutionary archaeology: Methodological issues, ed. P.A. Telster, 149–174. Tucson: University of Arizona Press.Google Scholar
  42. Green, R.C. 1993. Community-level organisation, power and elites in Polynesian settlement pattern studies. In The evolution and organisation of prehistoric society in Polynesia, Monograph 19, ed. M.W. Graves and R.C. Green, 9–12. Auckland: New Zealand Archaeological Association.Google Scholar
  43. Green, R.C., K. Green, R.A. Rappaport, A. Rappaport, and J. Davidson. 1967. Archeology on the island of Moʻorea, French Polynesia. Anthropological papers of the American Museum of Natural History 51. New York.Google Scholar
  44. Hamilton, S. 2016. Materialising Island worlds: The case of prehistoric Rapa Nui (Easter Island). In Rapa Nui–Easter Island: Cultural and historical perspectives, ed. C.H. Mückler, 129–147. Berlin: Frank & Timme.Google Scholar
  45. Hamilton, S., S. Nahoe Arellano, C. Richards, and H.F. Torres. 2008. Quarried away: Thinking about landscapes of megalithic construction on Rapa Nui (Easter Island). In Handbook of landscape archaeology, ed. B. David and J. Thomas, 176–186. Walnut Creek: Left Coast Press.Google Scholar
  46. Herdrich, D.J. 1991. Towards an understanding of Samoan star mounds. The Journal of the Polynesian Society 100 (4): 381–435.Google Scholar
  47. Hommon, R.J. 2013. The ancient Hawaiian state: Origins of a political society. Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  48. Jackmond, G., D. Fonoti, and M.M. Tautunu. 2018. Samoa’s hidden past: LiDAR confirms inland settlement and suggests larger populations in pre-contact Samoa. Journal of the Polynesian Society 127 (1): 73–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Kahn, J.G. 2005. Household and community organization in the late prehistoric Society Islands (French Polynesia). Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Anthropology, University of California, Berkeley.Google Scholar
  50. Kahn, J.G. 2011. Multi-phase construction sequences and aggregate site complexes of the prehistoric windward Society Islands (French Polynesia). Journal of Island and Coastal Archaeology 6: 24–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Kahn, J.G. 2016a. Household archaeology in Polynesia: Historical context and new directions. Journal of Anthropological Research 24 (4): 325–372.Google Scholar
  52. Kahn, J.G. 2016b. Public versus corporate ritual in the Prehistoric Society islands (French Polynesia): A multi-scalar analysis of religious practices. Séances de la Société Préhistorique Française 7: 141–161.Google Scholar
  53. Kahn, J.G., and P.V. Kirch. 2011. Monumentality and the materialization of ideology in Central Eastern Polynesia. Archaeology in Oceania 46: 93–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Kahn, J.G., and P.V. Kirch. 2014. Monumentality and ritual materialization in the Society Islands: The archaeology of a Major ceremonial complex in the Opunohu Valley, Moʻorea. Honolulu: Bishop Museum Press.Google Scholar
  55. Kennett, D., A. Anderson, M. Prebble, E. Conte, and J. Southon. 2006. Prehistoric human impacts on Rapa, French Polynesia. Antiquity 80 (308): 340–354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Kikiloi, S.T. 2012. Kūkulu manamana: Ritual power and religious expansion in Hawaiʻi the ethno-historical and archaeological study of Mokumanamana and Nihoa islands. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Anthropology, University of Hawaii at Manoa.Google Scholar
  57. Kirch, P.V. 1984. The evolution of the Polynesian chiefdoms. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  58. Kirch, P.V. 1985. Feathered gods and fishhooks. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.Google Scholar
  59. Kirch, P.V. 1988. Niuatoputapu: The prehistory of a Polynesian chiefdom, Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Monograph 5. Seattle: Burke Museum.Google Scholar
  60. Kirch, P.V. 1990. Monumental architecture and power in polynesi. An chiefdoms: A comparison of Tonga and Hawaii. World Archaeology 22 (2): 206–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Kirch, P.V. 1991. Chiefship and competitive involution: The Marquesas Islands of eastern Polynesia. In Chiefdoms: Power, economy and ideology, ed. T.K. Earle, 119–145. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  62. Kirch, P.V. 2004a. Temple sites in Kahikinui, Maui, Hawaiian Islands: Their orientations decoded. Antiquity 78: 102–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Kirch, P.V. 2004b. Solstice observation in Mangareva, French Polynesia: New perspectives from archaeology. Archaeoastronomy: The Journal of Astronomy in Culture 18: 1–19.Google Scholar
  64. Kirch, P.V. 2010. How chiefs became kings: Divine kingship and the rise of archaic states in ancient Hawaiʻi. Berkeley: University of California Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Kirch, P.V. 2017. On the road of the winds: An archaeological history of the Pacific Islands before European contact. Berkeley: Univ of California Press.Google Scholar
  66. Kirch, P.V. 2018. Voices on the wind, traces in the earth: Integrating oral narrative and archaeology in Polynesian history. Journal of the Polynesian Society 127 (3): 275–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Kirch, P.V., and R.C. Green. 1987. History, phylogeny, and evolution in Polynesia. Current Anthropology 28 (4): 431–456.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Kirch, P.V., and R.C. Green. 2001. Hawaiki, ancestral Polynesia: An essay in historical anthropology. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Kirch, P.V., and W.D. Sharp. 2005. Coral 230Th dating of the imposition of a ritual control hierarchy in precontact Hawaii. Science 307 (5706): 102–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Kirch, P.V., C. Ruggles, and W.D. Sharp. 2013. The “Pānānā” or “sighting wall” at Hanamauloa, Kahikinui, Maui: Archaeological investigation of a possible navigation monument. The Journal of the Polynesian Society 122 (1): 45–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Kirch, P.V., R. Mertz-Kraus, and W.D. Sharp. 2015. Precise chronology of Polynesian temple construction and use for southeastern Maui, Hawaiian islands determined by 230 Th dating of corals. Journal of Archaeological Science 53: 166–177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Kolb, M.J. 1991. Social power, chiefly authority, and ceremonial architecture in an island polity, Maui, Hawaii. Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, Los Angeles. Ann Arbor: University Microfilms.Google Scholar
  73. Kolb, M.J. 1994a. Monumentality and the rise of religious authority in precontact Hawaiʻi. Current Anthropology 35 (5): 521–547.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Kolb, M.J. 1994b. Ritual activity and chiefly economy at an upland religious site on Maui, Hawaiʻi. Journal of Field Archaeology 21 (4): 417–436.Google Scholar
  75. Kolb, M.J. 1999. Monumental grandeur and political florescence in pre-contact Hawai’i: Excavations at Pi’ilanihale Heiau, Maui. Archaeology in Oceania 34 (2): 71–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Kolb, M.J. 2006. The origins of monumental architecture in ancient Hawai‘i. Current Anthropology 47 (4): 657–665.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Kolb, M.J. 2012. The genesis of monuments in island societies. In The comparative archaeology of complex societies, ed. Michael E. Smith, 138–164. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  78. Kolb, M.J., and J.E. Snead. 1997. It’s a small world after all: Comparative analyses of community organization in archaeology. American Antiquity 62 (4): 609–628.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Ladefoged, T.N., and M.W. Graves. 2006. The formation of Hawaiian territories. In Archaeology of Oceania: Australia and the Pacific Islands, ed. Ian Lilley, 259–283. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.Google Scholar
  80. Lepofsky, D., and J.G. Kahn. 2011. Cultivating an ecological and social balance: Elite demands and commoner knowledge in ancient ma‘ohi agriculture, Society Islands. American Anthropologist 113 (2): 319–335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Lipo, C.P., and T.L. Hunt. 2005. Mapping the prehistoric statue roads on Easter Island. Antiquity 79: 158–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Lyman, K. 2012. Visibility analysis of Oahu Heiau. Unpublished M.A. thesis, Department of Geography, University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa.Google Scholar
  83. Maric, T. 2016. From the valley to the shore: A hypothesis of the spatial evolution of ceremonial centres on Tahiti and Raʻiatea, Society Islands. Journal of the Polynesian Society 125 (3): 239–262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Martinsson-Wallin, H. 1994. Ahu – The ceremonial stone structures of Easter Island: Analyses of variation and interpretation of meanings. Aun 19. Uppsala: Societas Archaeologica Upsaliensis.Google Scholar
  85. Martinsson-Wallin, H. 2007. Samoan archaeology – a review of research history. Archaeology in Oceania 42 (1): 1–36.Google Scholar
  86. Martinsson-Wallin, H. 2014. Introduction. In Monuments and people in the pacific. Studies in Global Archaeology 20, ed. H. Martinsson-Wallin and T. Thomas, 9–44. Uppsala: Uppsala University.Google Scholar
  87. Martinsson-Wallin, H.A. 2016. Samoan archaeology and cultural heritage: Monuments and people, memory and history. Oxford: Archaeopress.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Martinsson-Wallin, H., and T. Thomas. 2014. Monuments and people in the Pacific, Studies in Global Archaeology 20. Uppsala: Uppsala University.Google Scholar
  89. Martinsson-Wallin, H., and P. Wallin. 2014. Spatial perspectives on ceremonial complexes: Testing traditional land divisions on Rapa Nui. In Monuments and people in the Pacific, Studies in Global Archaeology 20, ed. H. Martinsson-Wallin and T. Thomas, 317–342. Uppsala: Uppsala University.Google Scholar
  90. McAllister, G.A. 1933. Archaeology of Oahu. Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 104. Honolulu.Google Scholar
  91. McCoy, M.D. 2017. Geospatial big data and archaeology: Prospects and problems too great to ignore. Journal of Archaeological Science 84: 74–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. McCoy, M.D. 2018. Celebration as a source of power in archaic states: Archaeological and historical evidence for the Makahiki festival in the Hawaiian islands. World Archaeology.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00438243.2018.1445554.
  93. McCoy, M.D., and T.N. Ladefoged. 2009. New developments in the use of spatial technology in archaeology. Journal of Archaeological Research 17 (3): 263–295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. McCoy, P.C., and R. Nees. 2014. A re-examination of Kenneth P. Emory’s theory of Necker type marae in the summit region of Mauna kea, Hawai ‘i: Many marae or shrines later. Society for Hawaiian Archaeology Special Publication 4: 27–50.Google Scholar
  95. McCoy, M.D., T.N. Ladefoged, M.W. Graves, and J.W. Stephen. 2011. Strategies for constructing religious authority in ancient Hawaiʻi. Antiquity 85 (329): 927–941.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. McElroy, W. 2007. The development of irrigated agriculture in Wailau Valley, Moloka‘i island, Hawai‘i. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa.Google Scholar
  97. McIvor, I.H. 2015. Monumental ideology: A GIS spatial analysis of interior features of Matakawau Pā, Ahuahu (stingray point Pā, great Mercury Island), New Zealand. The Journal of the Polynesian Society 124 (3): 269–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. McKern, W.C. 1929. Archaeology of Tonga. Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 60. Honolulu.Google Scholar
  99. Millerstrom, S. 2006. Ritual and domestic architecture, sacred places, and images: Archaeology in the Marquesas archipelago, French Polynesia. In Archaeology of Oceania: Australia and the Pacific Islands, ed. Ian Lilley, 259–283. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.Google Scholar
  100. Molle, G. 2016. Exploring religious practices on polynesian atolls: A comprehensive architectural approach towards the ‘marae’ complex in the Tuamotu islands. The Journal of the Polynesian Society 1225 (3): 263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Morrison, A.E., and J.T. O’Connor. 2018. Settlement pattern studies in Polynesia: Past projects, current progress, and future prospects. In The Oxford handbook of prehistoric Oceania, ed. Ethan Cochrane and Terry Hunt, 450–472. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  102. Morrison, A.E., T.M. Rieth, E.E. Cochrane, and R.J. DiNapoli. 2018. The Samoa archaeological geospatial database: Initial description and application to settlement pattern studies in the Samoan Islands. Journal of the Polynesian Society 127 (1): 15–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Mulrooney, M. 2012. Continuity or collapse? Diachronic settlement and land use in Hanga Hoonu, Rapa Nui (Easter Island). Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Auckland.Google Scholar
  104. Mulrooney, M.A., and T.N. Ladefoged. 2005. Hawaiian heiau and agricultural production in the Kohala dryland field system. The Journal of the Polynesian Society 114 (1): 45–67.Google Scholar
  105. Osborne, J.F., ed. 2014. Approaching monumentality in archaeology. Albany: SUNY Press.Google Scholar
  106. Phillips, N., T.N. Ladefoged, B.W. McPhee, and G.P. Asner. 2015. Location, location, location: A viewshed analysis of heiau spatial and temporal relationships in leeward Kohala, Hawai‘i. Journal of Pacific Archaeology 6 (2): 21–40.Google Scholar
  107. Quintus, S., and J.T. Clark. 2016. Space and structure in Polynesia: Instantiated spatial logic in American Sāmoa. World Archaeology 48 (3): 395–410.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Quintus, S., and J.T. Clark. 2019. Ritualizing hierarchy: Power strategies and pigeon catching in ancient Samoa. Journal of Anthropological Research 75 (1): 48–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Quintus, S., Melinda S. Allen, and Thegn N. Ladefoged. 2016. In surplus and in scarcity: agricultural development, risk management, and political economy on Ofu Island, American Samoa. American Antiquity 81 (2): 273–293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Quintus, S., J.T. Clark, S.S. Day, and D.P. Schwert. 2015. Investigating regional patterning in archaeological remains by pairing extensive survey with a lidar dataset: The case of the Manu‘a group, American Samoa. Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports 2: 677–687.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Quintus, S., S.S. Day, and N.J. Smith. 2017. The efficacy and analytical importance of manual feature extraction using Lidar datasets. Advances in Archaeological Practice 5: 1–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Richards, C., K. Croucher, T. Paoa, T. Parish, E. Tucki, and K. Welham. 2011. Road my body goes: Re-creating ancestors from stone at the great moai quarry of Rano Raraku, Rapa Nui (Easter Island). World Archaeology 43 (2): 191–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Rolett, B.V. 2010. Marquesan monumental architecture: Blurred boundaries in the distinction between religious and residential sites. Archaeology in Oceania 45 (2): 94–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Ruggles, C. 2001. Heiau orientations and alignments on Kauaʻi. Archaeoastronomy: The Journal of Astronomy in Culture 16: 46–82.Google Scholar
  115. Sand, C. 1993. A preliminary study of the impact of the Tongan maritime chiefdom on the late prehistoric society of ‘Uvea, Western Polynesia. The Evolution and Organisation of Prehistoric Society in Polynesia, Monograph 19: 43–51.Google Scholar
  116. Sand, C. 1999. Empires maritimes préhistoriques dans le Pacifique: Ga‘asialili et la mise en place d’une colonie tongienne a Uvea (Wallis, Polynésie occidentale). Journal de la Société des Océanistes 108 (1): 103–124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Sand, C., D. Baret, J. Bole, A. Ouetcho, and M. Sahib. 2018. Samoan settlement pattern and star mounds of Manono Island. The Journal of the Polynesian Society 127 (1): 91–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Sharp, W.D., J.G. Kahn, C.M. Polito, and P.V. Kirch. 2010. Rapid evolution of ritual architecture in central Polynesia indicated by precise 230Th/U coral dating. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 107 (30): 13234–13239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Shepardson, B.L. 2005. The role of Rapa Nui (Easter Island) statuary as territorial boundary markers. Antiquity 79 (303): 169–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Stephens, J. 2016. Making sense of monumentality: A multisensory archaeological approach to Hawaiian ritual architecture. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Hawaiʻi, Manoa.Google Scholar
  121. Suggs, R. 1961. The archeology of Nuku Hiva, Marquesas Islands, French Polynesia. Anthropological Papers of the American Museum of Natural History 49. New York.Google Scholar
  122. Sutton, D.G. 1990. Organisation and ontology: The origins of the Northern Maori chiefdom, New Zealand. Man 25 (4): 667–692.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Sutton, D.G., L. Furey, and Y.M. Marshall. 2003. The archaeology of Pouerua. Auckland: Auckland University Press.Google Scholar
  124. Wallin, P. 1993. Ceremonial stone structures: the archaeology and ethnohistory of the Marae complex in the Society Islands, French Polynesia. Ph.D. dissertation, Societas Archaeologica Upsaliensis.Google Scholar
  125. Wallin, P. 2014. Chiefs, Fashion and Zeitgeist: Exclusion as an Expension Strategy in Kinship Based Groups in the Society Islands. In Monuments and people in the Pacific. Studies in Global Archaeology 20, ed. H. Martinsson-Wallin and T. Thomas, 297–316. Uppsala: Uppsala University.Google Scholar
  126. Wallin, P., and H. Martinsson-Wallin. 2011. Monumental structures and the spirit of chiefly actions. Time and Mind 4 (1): 43–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Wallin, P., H. Martinsson-Wallin, and G. Clark. 2007. A radiocarbon sequence for Samoan prehistory and the Pulemelei Mound. In Archaeology in Samoa. The Pulemelei investigations. Archaeology in Oceania vol 42 supplement, ed. H Martinsson-Wallin, 71–82. University of Sydney, Sydney.Google Scholar
  128. Weisler, M.I., and P.V. Kirch. 1985. The structure of settlement space in a Polynesian chiefdom: Kawela, Moloka‘i, Hawaiian Islands. New Zealand Journal of Archaeology 7: 129–158.Google Scholar

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Anthropology DepartmentCollege of William and MaryWilliamsburgUSA

Section editors and affiliations

  • Ndukukhaye Ndlovu
    • 1
  1. 1.Newcastle UniversityNewcastleUK