Imaging Techniques in Bone Analysis

  • Gerald ConlogueEmail author
  • Mark Viner
Living reference work entry


The main medical radiological imaging techniques used for forensic examination of skeletal material may be summarized as follows:
  • Radiography: The term radiography is generally used to describe a static or “still” two-dimensional image produced by means of a single exposure to X-rays (an energy form of ionizing radiation). Such images are now usually recorded and stored digitally but were previously recorded photographically on X-ray film.

  • Fluoroscopy: The term fluoroscopy is used to describe a two-dimensional image directly visualized in real-time motion produced by a continuous exposure to X-rays.

  • Tomography: Tomography employs a moving X-ray tube and image receptor to create an image of a plane or “slice” within an object. Originally developed in the 1930s to overcome the limitations of radiography as a two-dimensional imaging method, the application of digital detectors and computer science led to the development of:

  • Computed Axial Tomography: CAT or CT scanning...


Mass Fatality Incidents Direct Digital Radiography (DR) Receptor Imaging Computed Radiography (CR) Forensic Anthropology 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Bioarchaology Research InstituteQuinnipiac UniversityMount CarmelUSA
  2. 2.Cranfield Forensic InstituteCranfield UniversityShrivenhamUK
  3. 3.Institute of DentistryBarts & The London School of Medicine & Dentistry, Queen Mary University of LondonLondonUK

Section editors and affiliations

  • Soren Blau
    • 1
  • Luis Fondebrider
    • 2
  • Douglas H. Ubelaker
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Forensic MedicineVictorian Institute of Forensic Medicine / Monash UniversityMelbourneAustralia
  2. 2.The Argentine Forensic Anthropology Team (Equipo Argentino de Antropología Forense, EAAF)Buenos AiresArgentina
  3. 3.National Museum of Natural HistorySmithsonian InstitutionWashingtonUSA