Marinobacter as a Model Organism for Wax Ester Accumulation in Bacteria
Wax esters are derived from the esterification of a long-chain fatty alcohol with a fatty acid. Wax esters are a diverse type of neutral lipid that is utilized by all domains of life to serve a wide variety of functions. The model bacterium Marinobacter aquaeolei VT8 has become an ideal model organism for studying wax ester biosynthesis, as it naturally accumulates wax esters in addition to having many other desirable features. While the pathway of wax ester biosynthesis has been mostly elucidated, there are still potential gaps in our understanding of how the two independent pathways of fatty acid biosynthesis and wax ester biosynthesis are linked. M. aquaeolei VT8 has also become a primary source of a number of key enzymes from the wax ester biosynthesis pathway that are either studied in the laboratory for purposes of characterization or have been transferred to other model species for use in developing alternative biosynthetic routes to novel products. Studies of global transcriptional regulation during wax ester biosynthesis are also providing us with a view of how organisms that evolved to accumulate wax esters naturally could be used as a template to inform decisions as we attempt to move these pathways into foreign hosts. Understanding the in vivo flow of substrates through the wax ester biosynthesis from de novo fatty acid biosynthesis to the final wax ester product is a key requirement to improving biosynthetic approaches for producing wax esters.
This work was supported by grants from the National Science Foundation to B.M.B. (Award Numbers 0968781 and CBET-1437758). Further support was provided through generous start-up funds through the University of Minnesota.
- Barbe V, Vallenet D, Fonknechten N, Kreimeyer A, Oztas S, Labarre L, Cruveiller S, Robert C, Duprat S, Wincker P, Ornston LN, Weissenbach J, Marlière P, Cohen GN, Médigue C (2004) Unique features revealed by the genome sequence of Acinetobacter sp. ADP1, a versatile and naturally transformation competent bacterium. Nucleic Acids Res 32:5766–5779CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kostka JE, Prakash O, Overholt WA, Green SJ, Freyer G, Canion A, Delgardio J, Norton N, Hazen TC, Huettel M (2011) Hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria and the bacterial community response in Gulf of Mexico beach sands impacted by the Deepwater horizon oil spill. Appl Environ Microbiol 77:7962–7974CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Lenneman EM (2013) The utilization of algicidal bacteria for improved lipid extractions and insights into neutral lipid production in a wax ester accumulating bacterium, Univeristy of MinnesotaGoogle Scholar
- McLeod MP, Warren RL, Hsiao WW, Araki N, Myhre M, Fernandes C, Miyazawa D, Wong W, Lillquist AL, Wang D, Dosanjh M, Hara H, Petrescu A, Morin RD, Yang G, Stott JM, Schein JE, Shin H, Smailus D, Siddiqui AS, Marra MA, Jones SJ, Holt R, Brinkman FS, Miyauchi K, Fukuda M, Davies JE, Mohn WW, Eltis LD (2006) The complete genome of Rhodococcus sp. RHA1 provides insights into a catabolic powerhouse. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:15582–15587CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Pérez D, Martín S, Fernández-Lorente G, Filice M, Guisán JM, Ventosa A, García MT, Mellado E (2011) A novel halophilic lipase, LipBL, showing high efficiency in the production of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). PLoS One 6:11Google Scholar
- Vetting MW, Al-Obaidi N, Zhao SW, San Francisco B, Kim J, Wichelecki DJ, Bouvier JT, Solbiati JO, Vu H, Zhang XS, Rodionov DA, Love JD, Hillerich BS, Seidel RD, Quinn RJ, Osterman AL, Cronan JE, Jacobson MP, Gerlt JA, Almo SC (2015) Experimental strategies for functional annotation and metabolism discovery: targeted screening of solute binding proteins and unbiased panning of metabolomes. Biochemistry 54:909–931CrossRefGoogle Scholar