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Fatty Acid-Binding Proteins, a Family of Lipid Chaperones

  • Masato FuruhashiEmail author
Reference work entry
Part of the Handbook of Hydrocarbon and Lipid Microbiology book series (HHLM)

Abstract

Lipids are important in various biological functions and the pathogenesis of several diseases. However, the mechanisms between intracellular lipids and their biological targets and signaling pathways are not well understood. Fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs), a family of lipid chaperones, contribute to systemic metabolic regulation through diverse lipid signaling. Fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4), known as adipocyte FABP (A-FABP) or aP2, and FABP5, known as epidermal FABP (E-FABP) or mal1, are expressed in both adipocytes and macrophages and play important roles in the development of insulin resistance and atherosclerosis in relation to metabolically driven, low-grade, and chronic inflammation, referred to as “metaflammation.” Pharmacological modification of FABP function would be a novel therapeutic strategy for several diseases, including obesity, diabetes mellitus, and atherosclerosis. It has recently been reported that FABP4 is secreted from adipocytes in a nonclassical pathway associated with lipolysis and acts as an adipokine for the development of insulin resistance and atherosclerosis. FABP5 is also secreted from cells, though the mechanism remains unclear. High concentrations of FABP4 and FABP5 are associated with several aspects of metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular events. Furthermore, ectopic expression and function of FABP4 in several types of cells and tissues have recently been shown to be associated with the pathogenesis of diseases. Here, we discuss significant roles of FABP4 and FABP5 among lipid chaperones in physiological and pathophysiological conditions and the possibility of therapeutic targets for metabolic and cardiovascular diseases.

Notes

Acknowledgments

In relation to this review article, M.F. has been supported by grants from JSPS KAKENHI, MEXT Translational Research Network Program, Uehara Memorial Foundation, SENSHIN Medical Research Foundation, Japan Diabetes Foundation, Takeda Medical Research Foundation, Ono Medical Research Foundation, Takeda Science Foundation, Akiyama Life Science Foundation, Yamaguchi Endocrine Research Foundation, Naito Foundation Natural Science Scholarship, Suhara Memorial Foundation, Kondou Kinen Medical Foundation, and Terumo Foundation for Life Science and Arts. We are grateful to group members of our department for their scientific contribution. The author also regrets the inadvertent omission of many important references due to space limitations.

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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Cardiovascular, Renal and Metabolic MedicineSapporo Medical University School of MedicineSapporoJapan

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