Genetics and Molecular Features of Bacterial Dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) and Dimethyl Sulfide (DMS) Transformations
The transformations of dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP; (CH3)2S+CH2CH2COO−) by bacterioplankton play important roles in the global sulfur cycle. This compound is produced in large quantities primarily for use as an osmolyte by marine algae. DMSP is a labile compound although the complete mineralization of DMSP is only a minor fate in the ocean. DMSP is the main precursor of dimethyl sulfide (DMS; CH3–S–CH3), a radiatively active trace gas that contributes to global climate regulation. However, it is believed that the main pathway for the transformation of DMSP involves an assimilation step in which DMSP sulfur is incorporated efficiently into cell biomass, leaving relatively little sulfur available for release as DMS. DMSP is rapidly turned over in the environment and the diversity of pathways for its transformation are likely not yet fully realized. This chapter covers recent findings on the genetics of DMSP catabolism; their discoveries are changing our view of the role of this compound in the world’s oceans. Although even less is known about bacterially mediated transformations of DMS, the handful of genes that have been described in a limited number of bacteria is also reviewed in this chapter.
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