Encyclopedia of Coastal Science

Living Edition
| Editors: Charles W. Finkl, Christopher Makowski

Coastal Evolution in Microtidal Seas in Holocene

  • Kazimierz FurmańczykEmail author
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-48657-4_405-1

Introduction: Origin of Coasts and Their Main Evolution Factors

A general layout of the shoreline depends on land and bottom surface and the sea level. Both the Earth’s crust and water volume undergo continuous and slow balance changes which affects the coastal zone landscape. Coast evolution rate depends on several factors as described by Cooper (1994), including geological, geomorphological and tectonic settings, paleotopography, climate, sea level changes, wave energy (wind), volume and direction of sediment supplied by river load, and intensity of coastal processes.

It would difficult to determine the impact of all the factors everywhere on the Earth. Therefore, the southern coast of the Baltic Sea was selected as a specific laboratory, where the magnitude and intensity of certain factors influencing the development of the coast can be limited. Such approach facilitates understanding of coast evolution processes.

An area extending from Scandinavia to the Baltic Sea basin was...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. Andrén T, Björck S, Andrén E, Conley D, Zillén L, Anjar J (2011) The development of the Baltic sea basin during the last 130 ka. In: Harff J, Björck S, Hoth P (eds) The Baltic Sea basin. Springer, Heidelberg/Dordrecht/London/New York, pp 75–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Cooper JAG (1994) Lagoons and microtidal coasts. In: Carter RWG, Woodroffe CD (eds) Coastal evolution. Late Quarternary shoreline morphodynamics. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 219–265Google Scholar
  3. Deng J, Zhang W, Harff J, Schneider R, Dudzińska-Nowak J, Terefenko P, Giza A, Furmańczyk K (2014) A numerical approach to approximate historical morphology of wave-dominated coasts – a case study of the Pomeranian Bight, southern Baltic Sea. Geomorphology 204:425–443CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Furmańczyk K, Musielak S (2015) Polish spits and barriers. In: Randazzo G, Jackson D, Cooper JA (eds) Sand and gravel spits. Coastal research library, vol 12. Springer, Cham, pp 181–194Google Scholar
  5. Harff J, Deng J, Groh A, Dudzińska-Nowak J, Fröhle P, Hünicke B, Soomere T, Zhang W (2017) What determines the change of coastlines in the Baltic Sea? In: Harff J, Furmańczyk K, von Storch H (eds) Coastline changes of the Baltic Sea from south to east – past and future projection. Coastal research library, vol 19. Springer, Heidelberg, pp 15–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Leatherman SP (1988) Barrier island handbook. Coastal publications series. The University of Maryland, MarylandGoogle Scholar
  7. Mielczarski A, Pazdur MF, Dunikowski R, Hakuć B (1990) Wskaźnikowe znaczenie karczy (pniaków) występujących na plażach morskich. Inżynieria Morska 5, s. 208–212Google Scholar
  8. Mörner NA (1980) Eustasy and geoid changes as a function of core/mantle changes. In: Mörner NA (ed) Earth, rheology, isostasy and eustasy. Wiley, Chichester/New York/Toronto, pp 535–553Google Scholar
  9. Musielak S, Furmańczyk K, Bugajny N (2017) Factors and processes forming the Polish Southern Baltic Sea coast on various temporal and spatial scales. In: Harff J, Furmańczyk K, von Storch H (eds) Coastline changes of the Baltic Sea from south to east. Coastal research library, vol 19. Springer, Cham, pp 69–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Rosa B (1984) Rozwój brzegu i jego odcinki akumulacyjne. In: Augustowski B (ed) Pobrzeże Bałtyku. GTN, Ossolineum, Wydawnictwo PAN, Gdańsk, pp 67–120Google Scholar
  11. Rotnicki K (1995) An outline of geomorphology and main problems of the Upper Quaternary of the Gardno-Łeba Coastal Plain. In: Rotnicki K (ed) Polish coast – past, present and future. Journal of coastal research, SI 22, pp 213–219Google Scholar
  12. Rotnicki K (1995) The Coastal Zone – Present, Past and Future. In: Rotnicki K. (ed) Polish Coast – Past, present and Future. Journal Coastal Research SI 22: pp 3–13Google Scholar
  13. Tillmann T (2015) Geomorphology and internal sedimentary structure of a landward migrating barrier spit (Southern Sylt/German Bight): insights from GPR surveys. In: Randazzo G, Jackson D, Cooper JA (eds) Sand and gravel spits. Coastal research library, vol 12. Springer, Cham, pp 307–326Google Scholar
  14. Uścinowicz S (2003) The Southern Baltic relative sea level changes, glacio-isostatic rebound and shoreline displacement. Pol Geol Inst Spec Papers 10:1–79Google Scholar
  15. Uścinowicz S (2014) Baltic Sea continental shelf. In: Chiocci F, Chivas A (eds) Continental shelves during last glacioeustatic cycle: shelves of the world. Geological Society, London, Memoirs, vol 41, pp 69–89Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Marine and Coastal SciencesUniversity of SzczecinSzczecinPoland