Paraglacial coasts are defined as those occurring on or close to glaciated terrain, where glacial erosion features or deposits have a recognizable effect on the nature and evolution of coastal morphology and sediments (Forbes and Syvitski 1994). They thus encompass a range of coastal environments and landforms from proglacial fjord and outwash coast-lines to sand-and gravel-dominated coasts deriving their sediment supply from glacigenic deposits, but where the glacial imprint is older and subdued. Such coastlines also occur in settings where other phenomena such a periglacial and related processes (including permafrost, ground ice, thaw subsidence, sea ice) or human impact (q.v.) may appear to dominate the coastal landscape. Essential features of paraglacial coastlines include a sediment source or physiographic setting in which the glacial origin exerts a continuing influence on the form and evolution of the coast.
- Forbes DL, Syvitski JPM (1994) Paraglacial coasts. In: Carter RWG, Woodroffe CD (eds) Coastal evolution: late quaternary shoreline morphodynamics. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 373–424Google Scholar
- Johnson D (1925) The New England – Acadian shoreline. Wiley, New York [facsimile edn. 1967, New York and London: Hafner]Google Scholar
- Orford JD, Carter RWG, Jennings SC (1996) Control domains and morphological phases in gravel-dominated coastal barriers of Nova Scotia. J Coast Res 12:589–604Google Scholar