Encyclopedia of Coastal Science

Living Edition
| Editors: Charles W. Finkl, Christopher Makowski

Oil Spills, High-Energy Coasts

  • William Ritchie
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-48657-4_234-2

Most oil spills at sea occur in relatively confined and sheltered localities, often from tankers in passage to or from oil terminals and ports. Natural processes, especially evaporation and other weathering effects quickly reduce the volume of oil at the surface but the more persistent residue requires expensive protection and clean-up procedures. Although normally less than is predicted at the time of the incident, substantial environmental and economic damage can occur along impacted coastlines and in nearshore zones. The Exxon Valdez oil spill in Alaska is the type-example of a large oil spill in a confined, low-energy location.

Some major oil spills occur in deep water more than 100 nautical miles from the nearest coastline. Normally weathering processes and, depending on wind and currents, the substantial time interval before the oil reaches a coastline minimize pollution damage. Chemical dispersants which are designed to breakdown the oil into tiny droplets for easier dilution,...

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Bibliography

  1. Edwards R, Sime H (1998) The sea empress oil spill. Terence Dalton, London 493ppGoogle Scholar
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  3. Ritchie W (1995) Maritime oil spills – environmental lessons and experiences with special reference to low-risk coastlines. J Coast Conserv 1:63–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Sell D et al (1995) Scientific criteria to optimize oil spill clean up. In: Proceedings of international oil spill conference, Long Beach, pp 595–610Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Aberdeen Institute of Coastal Science & ManagementKing’s CollegeAberdeenUK