Encyclopedia of Animal Cognition and Behavior

Living Edition
| Editors: Jennifer Vonk, Todd Shackelford

Dear Enemy Effect

  • James P. Tumulty
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-47829-6_693-1



Reduced aggression between established territorial neighbors relative to strangers


Territorial animals defend resources needed for survival and reproduction. Animals advertise their ownership of territories through conspicuous signals; birds and frogs vocalize, mammals and salamanders scent mark, lizards display colorful patterns, and fiddler crabs wave their oversized claws in the air. If advertisement is not enough, animals may have to fight off intruders to maintain territory ownership. However, animal fights are relatively rare, even when territories are spatially clumped resulting in frequent interactions between neighbors. Once territories are established, individuals in neighboring territories typically respect territorial boundaries and withhold aggression from their neighbors. This makes sense because aggression can be costly, and if a neighbor already has a territory, they might not...


Dear Enemy Effect Neighbor Recognition Territory Holders Familiar Neighborhood Territorial Animals 
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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • James P. Tumulty
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Ecology, Evolution, and BehaviorUniversity of Minnesota – Twin CitiesSt. PaulUSA

Section editors and affiliations

  • Caroline Leuchtenberger
    • 1
  1. 1.Federal Institute FarroupilhaPanambiBrasil